There are many kinds of organic substances, which can be divided into two major categories of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives. organic molecules

Who is Organic Molecule:

According to the carbon framework structure of the organic molecules, it can also be classified into three types:

  • An open Chain Compound.
  • A Carbocyclic Compound.
  • A Heterocyclic Compound.


Depending on the functional groups contained in the organic molecules, it is further divided into alkanes, alkenes, alkynesaromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketonescarboxylic acids, esters and the like.

Carbon skeleton

  1. Chain compound

The carbon atoms in the molecules of such compounds are linked to each other in a chain shape, and since they are originally found in fat, they are also called aliphatic compounds.

Its structural feature is the connection between carbon and carbon into an enclosed chain.

  1. Cyclic compound

A cyclic compound refers to a compound in which atoms in a molecule are arranged in a ring shape. Cyclic compounds are further classified into alicyclic compounds and aromatic compounds.

(1) Alicyclic compound: A ring-containing compound which does not contain an aromatic ring such as a benzene ring, a fused ring or some heterocyclic ring having a benzene ring or a fused ring property. Such as cyclopropanecyclohexenecyclohexanol and the like.

(2) Aromatic compound: A cyclic compound containing an aromatic ring such as a benzene ring, a fused ring or some heterocyclic ring having a benzene ring or a fused ring.

Such as benzene, benzene homologs and derivatives, fused aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, pyrrole, pyridine and the like.


An organic substance containing only two elements of carbon and hydrogen is called a hydrocarbon and is abbreviated as a hydrocarbon.

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Such as methane, ethylene, acetylene, benzene and so on. Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon.

Hydrocarbon derivatives

A series of compounds formed by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule by other atoms or groups of atoms are referred to as hydrocarbon derivatives. Such as halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, amino acids, nucleic acids and the like.

Functional group:

An atom or group of atoms that determine the specific properties of a compound is called a functional group or a functional group. Containing the same functional group

The chemical properties of the compounds are essentially the same. Common functional group carbon-carbon double bond, carbon-carbon triple bond, hydroxyl group, carboxyl

Base, an ether bond, aldehyde group, carbonyl group, and the like.

Homologs: Organics that are structurally similar and whose molecular composition differs by one or several “CH2” radicals are called homologs.

It must be of the same type (containing the same and the equal number of functional groups, with the exception of hydroxyl groups, phenols and alcohols cannot be homologs such as phenol and benzyl alcohol).

Due to their similar structure, the chemical properties of homologues are similar; their physical properties often change regularly with increasing molecular weight.

Open-chain hydrocarbon:

A hydrocarbon in which carbon atoms in a molecule are combined into a chain, and a hydrocarbon having no cyclic structure is called an open-chain hydrocarbon.

Depending on the carbon and hydrogen content of the molecule, the chain hydrocarbons can be further divided into saturated chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) and unsaturated chain hydrocarbons (olefins, alkynes).

Aliphatic hydrocarbons: Also known as “chain hydrocarbons“. Since the fat is a derivative of a chain hydrocarbon, the chain hydrocarbon is also called an aliphatic hydrocarbon.

Saturated hydrocarbons: Saturated hydrocarbons can be classified into chain-like saturated hydrocarbons, that is, alkanes (also known as paraffin hydrocarbons) and another type of saturated hydrocarbons having a carbon-carbon single bond and ring-shaped, that is, cycloparaffins (see closed-chain hydrocarbons).

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Alkane: a saturated chain hydrocarbon, also known as a paraffin hydrocarbon. The general formula is C n H 2n+2 (n≥1), and the hydrogen content in the alkane has reached saturation.

The simplest of alkanes is methane, which is a major component of natural gas and biogas. The main sources of alkanes are oil, natural gas, and biogas.

A substitution reaction can occur, and methane can be substituted with chlorine under light conditions, and the product is CH 3 Cl→CH 2 Cl 2 →CHCl 3→CCl 4.

Unsaturated hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon having an unsaturated bond (“C=C” or “C≡C”) in its molecule. Such hydrocarbons can also be classified into unsaturated chain hydrocarbons and unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons.

Nitrous Acid

The unsaturated chain hydrocarbons contain fewer hydrogen atoms than the corresponding alkane, and are chemically active, and are susceptible to addition reactions and polymerization reactions.

Unsaturated chain hydrocarbons can be further divided into olefins and alkynes. Unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons can be classified into cyclic olefins (such as cyclopentadiene) and cycloalkynes (such as phenylene).

Olefins: hydrocarbons containing “C=C” in the molecule. According to the number of “C=C” contained in the molecule, it can be classified into a mono olefin and a diene. The mono olefin molecule contains a “C=C” having the formula C n H 2n, where n ≥ 2.

Nitrous Acid

The most important mono olefins are ethylene H 2 C=CH 2, with propylene CH3CH=CH2and 1-buteneCH3CH2CH=CH2. Monoolefins are abbreviated as olefins, and the main source of olefins is petroleum and its cracking products.

Diolefin: is a chain hydrocarbon or cyclic hydrocarbon containing two “C=C”. Such as 1, 3-butadiene. 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene, cyclopentadiene, and the like.

The most important system containing a conjugated double bond in a diene, such as 1, 3-butadiene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene, etc., is a monomer of synthetic rubber.

Alkyne: an unsaturated chain hydrocarbon containing “C≡C” in its molecule.

According to the number of carbon-carbon triple bonds in the molecule, it can be divided into a single alkyne and a polyacetylene, and the general formula of the monoalkyneis C n H 2n-2, wherein n≥2. Alkynes and diolefins are isomers.

The simplest and most important alkyne is acetylene HC≡CH, which can be prepared by the reaction of calcium carbide and water.

Closed-bonded hydrocarbons: also known as “cyclic hydrocarbons”. It is a hydrocarbon having a cyclic structure. Can be divided into two categories, one is alicyclic hydrocarbons (or aliphatic cyclic hydrocarbons) with aliphatic nature, alicyclic hydrocarbons are divided into saturated naphthenes where n ≥ 3.

The cycloalkanes and olefins are isomers. Cycloalkanes are present in certain petroleums, and cyclic olefins are often found in plant essential oils.

The other type of cyclic hydrocarbon is an aromatic hydrocarbon, and most aromatic hydrocarbons have the properties of a benzene ring structure and an aromatic compound.

Cycloalkane: A cycloalkane in which a carbon atom is bonded to each other by a single bond in a cyclic hydrocarbon molecule, which is a saturated alicyclic hydrocarbon.

The cycloalkane having a tricyclic ring and a tetracyclic ring has poor stability and is easy to open under certain conditions.

The cycloalkane above the five rings is relatively stable and its properties are similar to those of alkanes. Common cycloalkanes are cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, and the like. organic molecules

Aromatic hydrocarbon: generally refers to a hydrocarbon having a benzene ring structure in its molecule. organic molecules

According to the number of benzene rings contained in the molecule and the bonding mode between the benzene rings, it can be classified into a monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, a condensed aromatic hydrocarbon, and the like.

The monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon has the general formula C n H 2n-6, wherein n≥6, and among the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, methylbenzene and the like are important.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: two or more benzene rings in the molecule and two phases are shared between the benzene rings. organic molecules

Heterocyclic compound: A compound containing a carbon atom and other atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the like to form a cyclic structure is called a heterocyclic compound.

Among them, a heterocyclic ring of five atoms and six atoms is relatively stable. Aromatic is called an aromatic heterocyclic ring.