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Blood lipids are a general term for neutral fats (triglycerides) and lipids (phospholipidsglycolipidssterols, and steroids) in plasma, and are widely found in humans. They are essential for the metabolism of living cells.

In general, the main components of blood lipids are triglycerides and cholesterol, among which triglycerides are involved in energy metabolism in the human body, while cholesterol is mainly used to synthesize cell serosal membranes, steroid hormones, and bile acids.

Introduction of Lipids

The lipids contained in plasma are collectively referred to as blood lipids. Although plasma lipids account for only a very small part of the total body lipids, both exogenous and endogenous lipids need to enter the bloodstream between tissues.

lipids

Therefore, blood lipid content can reflect the metabolism of lipids in the body. After eating a high-fat diet, the plasma lipid content increases significantly, but this is temporary and usually gradually normal after 3 to 6 hours.

When testing blood lipids, blood is often taken 12 to 14 hours after a meal, so that the true state of blood lipid levels can be more reliably reflected. Since elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are associated with the development of atherosclerosis, these two items have become the focus of blood lipid determination.

Lipids Structure

All blood lipids bind to proteins to form lipoproteins. The basic structure of lipoproteins is composed of different levels of triglycerides, surrounded by a layer of phospholipids, cholesterol and protein molecules.

Lipoproteins are classified according to their density: chylomicrons CM, very low-density lipoprotein VLDL, low-density lipoprotein LDL, and high-density lipoprotein HDL. Among them, the main carriers of triglycerides are chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein. The main carriers of cholesterol are low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein.

Cause of formation

There are two ways to source blood lipids in the human body, namely endogenous and exogenousEndogenous blood lipids are blood lipid components synthesized in tissue cells such as liver and fat of the human body, exogenous blood lipids are blood lipid components taken from food.

Specifically, endogenous blood lipids refer to a class of serum lipids secreted and synthesized by the body itself.

Endogenous blood lipids pass through the liver and fat cells and are combined with the cells and released into the bloodstream, which can become a source of energy for the body’s metabolism and life activities.

Lipids

Relative to endogenous blood lipids, blood lipids from the outside world that cannot be directly synthesized by the human body are called exogenous blood lipids. Most of these blood lipids are absorbed by the human body from the ingested food.

After the food is digested and absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, the lipid substances enter the bloodstream, thereby becoming blood lipids.

Under normal circumstances, exogenous blood lipids and endogenous blood lipids are mutually restricted, and the two are in balance, maintaining the balance of blood lipid metabolism.

When the body ingests lipids from food, the amount of fat absorbed by the intestines will increase, and the level of blood lipids will increase.

However, due to the increase of exogenous blood lipid levels, the liver Fat synthesis is inhibited to a certain extent, resulting in a decrease in endogenous blood lipid secretion.

Lipids Function

On the contrary, if the intake of exogenous fat is reduced during eating, the synthesis rate of endogenous blood lipids in the human body will be accelerated, so that the blood lipid level can be avoided, so that the blood lipid level of the human body can be maintained at a relatively balanced and stable state.

Status. It is precise because of this constraint that the blood lipid level of the human body can be well maintained in a stable state. If it is affected by adverse factors for a long time, such as high-fat, high-calorie diet, it will cause blood lipids to rise and induce disease.

The blood of the human body is like the gasoline of a car. The high content of cholesterol or triglyceride in plasma is equivalent to more impurities in the gasoline or the oil path is not smooth, so the occurrence of hyperlipidemia and its complications is inevitable.

Therefore, a correct understanding of high blood lipids, listen to the experts’ guidance and advice, master some high blood lipids treatment methods, proper diet, you can also use Cassia and Oolong tea to make a group of tea for long-term drinking.

lipids

Adhere to exercise and consistently implement it, I believe that high blood lipids will be effectively controlled and benign.

Blood lipids tend to be stable under normal conditions, but blood lipid levels are also susceptible to non-disease factors, such as a person’s normal fasting blood lipids, high blood fat diet 2 hours after blood test blood lipids, you will find this time Blood lipid levels are much higher than usual fasting levels.

However, the effects of this diet are only temporary, and blood lipids usually return to normal after 3-6 hours.

It is not difficult to understand that when you go to the hospital to check blood lipids, the doctor asks you not to eat other things after dinner, and then take blood after 12 hours on an empty stomach. Of course, short-term hunger can also temporarily increase blood lipid levels due to a large amount of mobilization of stored fat.

Metabolism and Regulation

Triglyceride

Source

The fat in the food is digested to form chylomicrons in the small intestine (this is the exogenous triglyceride).

The triglyceride carried by the chylomicrons is transported to the adipose tissue through the blood circulation and stored therein.

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Part of the triglyceride in the adipose tissue is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, transported to the liver, and the liver re-synthesizes it into triglyceride storage, which can also be transported as very low-density lipoprotein (this is endogenous glycerol ester).

Going the way

Some of the fatty acids in the body are oxidized to provide energy for water and carbon dioxide. When the body is cold and starved, it can also be converted into glucose sugar for use by vital organs.

Adjustment

Triglyceride sources in the blood of normal humans are basically balanced.

Generally, lipid metabolism is regulated by hormones.

Insulin promotes the conversion of sugars to triglycerides, inhibiting the conversion of triglycerides into sugars.

Glucagon promotes the conversion of triglycerides to sugars.

Adrenaline promotes the breakdown of triglycerides and the conversion of fatty acids to sugars.

Cholesterol

Source

Drink 300-500mg directly from food every day.

1 g of body synthesis per day, 70-80% from the liver and 10% from the small intestine.

It is carried by low-density lipoprotein and transported to the whole body.

Going the way

For the synthesis of lipid hormones; composition of cell membranes.

High-density lipoprotein absorbs excess cholesterol from the tissue, transports it to the liver, and processes it into bile acids for excretion.

Adjustment

Triglyceride sources in the blood of normal humans are basically balanced.

Generally regulated by high-density lipoproteins.

Routine inspection

[Four tests of blood lipids]

Total cholesterol: 2.8 ~ 5.17mmol / L

Triglyceride: 0.56~1.7mmol/L

Cholesterol fat: 2.8 ~ 5.17mmol / L (110 ~ 200mg / dl), accounting for 0.70 ~ 0.75 (70 ~ 75%) of total cholesterol

High-density lipoprotein: male: 0.96~1.15mmol/L; female: 0.90-1.55mmol/L

Low density lipoprotein: 0 ~ 3.1mmol / L

Fatty Liver Lipid Test Form

The clinically commonly used test items are: total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1). ), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and other six items. Their normal values ​​are:

TC: Adult: 2.86-5.98mmol/L (110-230mg/dl)

TG: 0.22-1.21 mmol/L (20-110 mg/dl)

HDL-C: 0.9-2.19mmol/L (35-85mg/dI)

LDL-C: <3.12mmol/L (120mg/dl)

ApoA1:110-160mg/dl

ApoB: 69-99mg/dl

Fatty liver itself is a metabolic disease, mainly characterized by abnormal fat metabolism. Blood lipids in patients with fatty liver showed significant increase in blood lipids, and TC, TG, and ApoB were significantly increased. Others were not increased or increased.

The above-mentioned indicators may have different normal values ​​due to differences in detection methods and experimental conditions of each medical unit.

Under normal circumstances, the normal reference value is marked on the test sheet, and the measured indicators can be compared to the normal range.

Method of Treatment

The fluctuation range of blood lipid content of normal people is relatively large, that is to say, the difference of blood lipid content between normal people is also very large.

It is not reasonable to judge the pathological changes by the level of one or two kinds of blood lipids. Although blood lipids only account for a small part of the body’s lipids, changes in blood lipids can basically reflect the state of lipid metabolism in the body.

In the case of dietary changes, strenuous exercise and illness, blood lipids will change significantly. When the diet is high, the blood lipid level is obviously increased, and even the Chyle is formed, but it gradually returns to normal after 3 to 6 hours.

Therefore, it is clinically determined that blood lipids are taken in the morning on an empty stomach to reflect the actual level of blood lipids of the patient.

Due to changes in blood lipids, it is mainly related to the amount of fat in the body and the situation in which the body uses fat stores, which largely reflects the body fat metabolism.

Some people are comparing the plasma lipid content of obesity with normal people, which proves that the blood lipid content of obese people is significantly higher than that of the normal group, but only 30% of the normal content is more than 1% higher than non-obese people.

In addition, it has also been shown that as the degree of obesity increases, blood lipid levels increase. This also explains why obesity people have a high incidence of atherosclerosiscoronary heart diseasecerebral thrombosis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.

Therefore, to prevent the body from ” blessing “, and obese people to actively lose weight, light diet, eat more celery, drink some blood sugar-lowering tea, it is very good for health.

It is worth noting that people are even refusing to eat fatty foods because of fear of increased blood lipids. This is very unfair.

In the case of cholesterol, in addition to LDL cholesterol, which is closely related to atherosclerosis, HDL cholesterol, which can be converted into an important physiological role, plays an important role in the body.

HDL, if converted into bile acid salts, helps digestion and absorption of fat, it is converted into adrenocortical hormone to regulate the metabolism of substances, it is converted into sex hormones ( estrogen and androgen) to exert its regulation on fertility and maternal metabolism.

And many more. This cholesterol is mainly from fat foods, which means that the fat is properly consumed.

Diet Conditioning

For the reasonable diet structure of patients with general hyperlipidemia, the relevant experts summarized it into one sentence, namely “one, two, three, four, five.” The first sentence is “one, two, three, four, and five”:

One” refers to drinking 1 bag of milk per day, containing 250 mg of calcium, which not only supplements calcium and protein but also reduces the incidence of hyperlipidemia.

Second” is a combination of the traditional Chinese medicine group tea with Juewu Tang Tea. Long-term drinking can play a very good control effect.

Three” means eating 3 servings of high-protein foods a day, each serving 50 grams of lean meat, or 1 egg, or 100 grams of chicken and duck meat, or 100 grams of fish and shrimp, or 100 grams of tofu, daily morning 1 meal, lunch and dinner should be appropriate,

Four” means “not sweet, not salty, thick and thin, three or four five, seven or eighty full”, that is, you can eat 3, 4 or 5 tons a day. You can eat seven or eighty.

Five” means eating 500 grams of vegetables and fruits a day, usually 400 grams of vegetables per day, 100 grams of fruit.

Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia refers to an increase in the level of one or more of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein in plasma. It is a relatively common type of disease, except for a few cases caused by systemic diseases (secondary hyperlipidemia), most of which are caused by genetic defects (or interaction with environmental factors) (primary high) Lipemia).

The clinical manifestations of hyperlipidemia mainly include two major aspects:

(1) The yellow tumor caused by deposition of lipids in the dermis.

(2) Atherosclerosis caused by lipid deposition in the vascular endothelium, resulting in coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease.

Because the incidence of xanthomas in hyperlipidemia is not very high, the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis take a long time, so most patients with hyperlipidemia do not have any symptoms and abnormal signs found.

Hyperlipidemia in patients is often found when performing blood biochemical tests (measuring blood cholesterol and triglycerides).

Four major Mistakes

Misunderstanding one

Hyperlipidemia is high in triglycerides, which is high blood viscosity and slow blood flow. Blood lipids are a general term for lipids contained in blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides.

Serious harm is mainly caused by abnormal cholesterol, especially LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein).

Studies have shown that an increase in triglycerides does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or ischemic cardiovascular disease.

If there is too much LDL in the blood, is deposited on the arterial wall, it will form a plaque. Stenosis or rupture of plaque blood vessels directly leads to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and even sudden death.

Therefore, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is currently the most important indicator of blood lipid testing, not triglycerides.

Misunderstanding two

It is normal for the medical test list to have no “arrow”. Many people today pay special attention to the cholesterol index in the physical examination results, but few people find that they have abnormal cholesterol problems because there is no “arrow” on the test sheet.

Why are the statistics of epidemiologists so high? In the general population and patients with existing coronary heart disease or diabetes or those who have had an MI or stroke, the blood lipid treatment value and target value are different from the normal values ​​shown on the test sheet.

Their target for blood lipids is more stringent than the reference value on the blood lipid test sheet, which means that the “bad” cholesterol LDL-C needs to be less than 80 mg/dL or 2.1 mmol/L. Key populations, ie men over 40 years old, menopausal women, obesity, those with yellow tumors, dyslipidemia and family history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cannot only refer to the indicator “not higher than 3mmol/L” on the test sheet.

Blood lipids should be tested annually in this population if conditions permit.

Misunderstanding three

Cholesterol abnormalities are chronic problems, and even if they do not meet the standard, it will not be a serious problem. Abnormal cholesterol is a chronic problem in many people’s eyes.

Just like high blood pressure and diabetes, it will not cause health problems for a while. In fact, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which are mainly coronary heart disease, are often inseparable from atherosclerosis.

They are characterized by chronic progression, acute mutations, and inflammation throughout the disease. “Bad” cholesterol in the arteries the inner wall gradually deposit formation of atherosclerotic plaques, vascular narrowing, choke means.

Moreover, these plaques are like “untimed bombs” that can break at any time, leading to acute myocardial infarction and stroke.

If not controlled as early as possible, younger patients will also suffer from the consequences of plaque rupture. In recent years, there are many young and middle-aged people among the movie stars who have sudden cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

In a report published in 2004, in just 15 years, the ratio of deaths among males aged 35 to 44 in Beijing due to coronary heart disease increased by 111%, and the mortality rate among women aged 45-54 increased. 40%.

Misunderstanding four

Health care products can soften blood vessels, lower blood viscosity, and take no side effects. For patients with refractory high blood lipids, the medical community recognizes that “statin ” drugs are the leading drugs for cholesterol-lowering therapy.

Under the strict guidance of clinicians, the efficacy and safety of “statin” drugs are guaranteed.

Hyperlipidemia

Drug treatment, paying attention to scientific diet, eating low-fat and high-sugar foods are effective measures to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia.

[Medication treatment of hyperlipidemia]

The main functions of lowering blood fat can be divided into four Categories :

  1. Lower total cholesterol.
  2. Mainly lower total cholesterol and lower triglycerides.
  3. Decrease triglycerides.
  4. Mainly lowering triglycerides and lowering total cholesterol.

In general, it can prevent the absorption of bile acid or cholesterol from the intestines and promote the excretion of bile acid or cholesterol with the feces.

lipids

Inhibiting the in vivo synthesis of cholesterol, or promoting the conversion of cholesterol, promotes the expression of LDL receptors on the cell membrane and accelerates lipoprotein breakdown.

Activate lipoprotein metabolism enzymes to promote hydrolysis of triglycerides. Prevent the in vivo synthesis of other lipids or promote the metabolism of other lipids.

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Cauliflower contains more flavonoids. Flavonoids are a good vascular cleansing agent, which can effectively remove cholesterol deposited on blood vessels, prevent platelet aggregation and reduce heart disease.

Avoid eating food

First, carbohydrate food. Foods that should be avoided – sweet potatoes (foods that produce abdominal gas), dried beans, and strong biscuits.

Second, fat foods. Foods that should be avoided – animal oil, raw lard, bacon, oily sardines.

Third, protein foods. Foods that should be avoided – fat foods (bovine, pork belly, pork ribs, whale meat, squid, squid, tuna, etc.), processed products (sausages, etc.).

Fourth, vitamins, mineral foods. Foods that should be avoided – fiber-hard vegetables (cow, bamboo shoots, corn), irritating vegetables (sweet vegetables, such as mustard, onions, celery).

Other foods. Foods to be avoided – spices (chili, mustard, curry powder, alcoholic beverages, coffee, concentrated black tea, etc.), carbonated drinks, salted foods (salted vegetables, salted squid, salted caviar, cod roe, sugar soy sauce boiled vegetables, pickles).