In the periodic table of Mendeleev’s chemical elements, there are two names of metal, tungsten, and vanadium, which begin with the letter V (30th letter of the Armenian alphabet). Vanadia has already been mentioned in the form of two articles, now we represent Wolfram. What is Tungsten used for and Tungsten Properties
Tungsten is the 74th element of the periodic system of chemical elements. It belongs to the 6th subgroup of the subgroup (Group B) and has 6 valued electrons 5d46s2 corresponding to the position occupied in the periodic system. Tungsten generates compounds with + 2, + 3, + 4, + 5, and +6 oxidation degrees, but it is more characteristic of +6 oxidation levels. The tungsten has five natural isotopes: 180 W (0.120%), 182 W (26.498%), 183 W (14.314%), 184 W (30.640%) and 186 W (28.426%).
180 W half-life time,
T 1/2 = 1,8 * 1018 years,
183 W, T 1/2 = 1,1 * 1017 years and 184 W, T1/2 = 3 * 1017 years.
Tungsten 30 artificial radioactive isotopes are also known from 158 to 190 massive, with 181 W more stable , T 1/2 = 120 days, 185 W, T 1/2 = 78.5 days and 184 W , T 1/2 = 1 day.
Tungsten compounds are quite common in nature. Its content in the earth’s crust amounts to 0.0013%.
15 tungsten deposits are known. Tungsten minerals are mainly found in granite rocks. A small amount of sulfide is encountered. Tungsten minerals are of industrial importance mainly iron, manganese, calcium, and in some cases lead, copper, and thorium tungsten.
- Wolframite -nFeWO 4* mMnWO 4(n = m);
Ferrer – 4FeWO 4 * MnWO 4 ;
• Guzzler – FeWO 4 * 4MnWO 4 ;
Sheet – CaWO 4 ;
• Stolzite – PbWO 4 ;
• Tustustisite – WS 2
The name of the tungsten chemical element
Wolframium received from the name of Volframed Ore. It is well-known that in the Middle Ages, in the same conditions of tuna acquisition in Europe, in some cases, the tuna did not come to an unexplained reason.
Metallurgists paid attention to the fact that when gray or dark gray stones were seen in the tin ore, the tin did not come out and passed through the shading foam. It turns out that this heavy stone “was eating like a wolf like a wolf.” The stone was called “Wolf Foam“, Latin, Spuma Lupi or German Wolf Rahm.
Currently, Tungsten, Swedish Tung Sten, heavy stone, is used for tungsten in the United States, Great Britain, and France. What is Tungsten used for and Tungsten Properties
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Well known Swedish scholar Sheelin, 1781 ore (CaWO 4 ), which subsequently was named Sheelé’s Shelley, developed nitrogen-free acid and obtained a “solid stone” of yellow color in an unknown chemical element.
In 1783, Elubar from the Spanish chemist brothers received the same ore from the ammonium-derived new metal yellow oxide WO3. Sheelin did not pretend to the invention of tungsten, and Elulars did not respond to their priorities.
Physical and chemical properties
Pure vanadium is a light gray metal. Its density is 19.3 g / cm3, fusion at 34220C temperature and boils 55550C at. At room temperature, dry air is chemically quite passive, but the high temperature 400 – 500 0 C- in slowly oxidized by oxygen.
Does not interact with the hydrogen in practice, even at melting temperature. Interacts with nitrogen to 2000 0 C- from high temperature. Atskhakhine 1100 – 1200 0 C- to interact with tungsten causing WC and W2C compounds. Tungsten also interacts with halogens, sulfur, and selenium.
It does not interact with hydrate, sulfuric acid, and alkaline solutions. It is soluble in alkaline rocks. It is superficially solved by nitrogen acid and “royal irrigation“. It is well tolerated in the mixture of nitrogen and fluorocarbon, causing tungsten acid.
Tungsten inventories and receipts
The total global reserve tungsten amount is 7.5 million tons. There are tremendous volumes of tungsten in Kazakhstan, China, Canada, Russia, the US, Bolivia, Portugal, and South Korea. Every year the world produces 20,000 tons of tungsten.
The content of tungsten content in Armenian minerals is insufficient and insufficient.
Tungsten gets either CaWO4 or FeWO4. Initially, the ore in the presence of MN is fertilized. The tungsten chemical concentrate contains 55-65% WO3. Then the concentrate is subject to a base or an acid pickle. Grounding is done in the autoclave at the presence of a triple surplus of Na2CO3.
CaWO4 + Na2CO3 = Na2 WO4 + CaCO3
Na2WO4 is water-free and acidified.
Na2WO4 + 2HCl = H2 WO4 + 2NaCl
The deposited sludge is filtered and dehydrated at 800 0 C.
H2WO4 = WO3 + H2O
From WO 3 to 850 0 C- in the recovery of hydrogen.
WO3 + 3H2 = W + 3H2O
CaWO4 is extracted with acidic or nitrogenic acid at the acid- forming process, resulting in H2WO4, which is dehydrated and recovered by hydrogen.
To obtain high purity tungsten, WO3 solves in ammonia, resulting in an ammonium paravolpharate. The latter breaks down when heats up. What is Tungsten used for and Tungsten Properties
(NH4)10 [H2W12O42], 4H2O = 12WO3 + 10NH3 + 10H2O
The resulting WO3 is recovered by hydrogen. It is powder tungsten that is exposed to cementation in the induction furnace in the helium environment.
Tungsten, the chemical industry, and metallurgy
It was noticed in the 19th century that the fabric wound with sodium tungsten was flammable. Yellow, blue, white, green, blue and purple paints containing tungsten were also used in painting, ceramics, and coatings. It is worth mentioning the fact that in the 17th century China produced magnificent porcelain items, which were painted in purple.
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The chemical analysis has shown that the porcelain color is owed tungsten. Many tungsten compounds are used as catalysts. Tungsten dichloro difluoro as a heat-resistant material is used as a dry solid lubricant.
If the chemical industry uses tungsten compounds, then metallurgy is necessary for vanadium and its alloys.
For the first time in 1859, the iron-wolfram alloy was obtained, and shortly afterward the production method for the production of the ferophofate was developed. When adding a tiny amount of tungsten into the steel, it also results in an alloy that increases the resistance of the weapon to the exhaustion of the guns.
First, the German engineers have evaluated the properties of the alloy. During the First World War, German light guns could survive 15,000 shots.
Steel, which contains 1-20% tungsten, has great stability, durability and acid stability.
The pure tungsten is used for the production of electric lamp wires and electron-beam tubes. It also prepares halos for metal evaporation.
55% of the tungsten is consumed in the form of carbide, for the production of solid alloys used in the production of stamps, flameproof parts, engines, cylinders, springs.
Alloyed metal coatings are made of tungsten consisting of tungsten (3-5%), chromium (25-35%), cobalt (45-65%) and coal (0,5-2,7%).
“Pobedit” alloy, tungsten (80-87%), cobalt (6-15%) and carbon (5-7%) are used for metal processing and cutting.
Tungsten and health
Through daily meals, the human body penetrates 0.001 to 0.015 mg tungsten, only 1 to 10% of it is digested, and the rest mainly comes from the body to the urine, 75% to the stomach and 25%. In the body, it accumulates mainly in bone, 0,00025 mg/kg, and kidney.
The amount of tungsten in the blood is 0.001 mg / l. It is assumed that the tungsten does not have concentric, teratogenic and metabolic properties. Its toxic dose for humans is not determined.
Tungsten dust causes irritation of the human respiratory tract, causes severe cough, acne, and changes in the lungs. What is Tungsten used for and Tungsten Properties
The accumulation of tungsten salts in animals reduces the amount of urea and increases the level of xenon in and hypoxanthine in the body.
Tungsten is able to replace molybdenum in living organisms, beys and microorganisms. Molybdenum is inhibited by molybdenum-dependent enzymes, xanthinoxidase activity.