Organic Chemistry

Types of salt, PH and Indicators

Types of salt, PH, and Indicators

Salt:

A compound formed by the complete or partial neutralization reaction between acid and base is called salt. E.g. NaCl, Na2CO3 , CuSO4, NaNO3, NaHSO4.

Types of salt:

i)Acidic salt:

The salt formed by the reaction between a strong acid and weak base is acidic salt. Acidic salt may contain replaceable H+ ion. E.g. Na2CO3, Ca(HCO3)2

HCl  +   NH4OH        →    NH4Cl + H2O

Strong    weak                  Acidic salt

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ii) Basic salt:

A salt formed by the reaction between a strong base and weak acid is basic salt. Basic salt may contain replaceable OH¯ ion. E.g: Mg(OH)Cl

H2CO3 + NaOH    →    Na2CO3+ H2O

Weak         strong             basic salt.

iii) Neutral/Normal salt:

A salt formed by complete neutralization between either strong acid and strong base or weak acid and the weak base is called neutral salt. Salt does not contain replaceable H+ or OH– ion. Eg: NaCl, KCl, etc.

NaOH + HCl    →    NaCl + H2O

Neutral

You can read more about this topic on the Britannica website.

Properties:    

  • Generally neutral to litmus.
  • Have high m.pt and b.pt.

Note:

Generally salt of Na, K, NH4 is soluble in water. All the chloride are soluble except chloride of Ag and Pb, and sulfate of others are soluble except sulfate of Pb and Ba.

Uses:

  • Common salt (NaCl) is used for cooking.
  • Epsom salt (MgSO4 .7H2O) is used in medicine in constipation.
  • Plaster of Paris (CaSO4.½H2O) is used for plastering fractured bone of the body.

Antacid:

A chemical which is used to treat the acidity of the stomach is called antacid. E.g. mixture of Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2.

Indicator:

A chemical compound used to detect acidity or basicity of a substance is called an indicator. The indicator does not take part in a chemical reaction. So, do not affect the chemical reaction. Generally, litmus is made from Lichen and beet.

Common
Indicator
Acidic
Solution
Alkaline
Solution
Neutral
Solution
Methyl orange

Red Litmus

Phenolphthalein

Red

No change

No change

Yellow

Blue

Pink (red)

Faint orange

No change

Colourless

Universal indicator:

As per the Cambridge Dictionary 

A mixture of simple indicators which identify the acidity or basicity of a substance as well as its strength is called universal indicator.

PH scale:

PH is the measure of H+ ion concentration present in the solution. It is called potential hydrogen and the scale used to measure the PH of a solution is called PH Scale.

PH = – log [H+]

SubstancePH
Lemon juice2.5
apple
Butter
3
6
Water7
Alcohol7
Salt soln7
Human blood7.3
VinegarAcetic acid
Lemon JuicesCitric acid
Acrid milkLactic acid
Vitamin ‘c’Ascorbic acid

for more about PH and it is properties, Please check this topic

PH and Properties

Types of salt, PH and Indicators

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