The saccharide substance is a polyhydroxy (2 or more) aldehyde (Aldehyde) or ketone (Ketone) compound and can be an organic compound which becomes one of the above after hydrolysis. sugar compounds
Chemically, because it is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, it is similar to “carbon” and “water” in the chemical formula, so it is also called carbohydrate.

Chemical classification

The saccharide substance is a polyhydroxy aldehyde or a ketone and can be classified into aldose and ketose.

Sugar can also be classified according to the number of carbon atoms triose (triose), chitosan (terose), pentose(pentose), hexose (hexose).

sugar compounds

The simplest sugars are triose (glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone). Since most sugar compounds can be expressed by the general formula Cn (H2O)n, it has been thought in the past that sugars are carbon and water compounds. known as carbohydrates.

Sugar Compounds

It was found that some sugars such as rhamnose (C6H12O5) and deoxyribose (C5H10O4) do not conform to the carbohydrate formula; in addition, some organic compounds have a ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in the molecule of exactly 2:1, such as formaldehyde (CH2O).

Acetic acid (C2H4O2), which is consistent with carbohydrate definition, but not sugar. Therefore, it is not appropriate to call sugar as a carbohydrate. It has only been used for a long time and is still used today.

Sugar can also be divided according to the number of structural units


(monosaccharide): A sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller molecules. Common monosaccharides are glucose (CH2OH-CHOH-CHOH-CHOH-CHOH-CHO), fructose (CH2OH-CHOH-CHOH-CHOH-CO-CH2OH), ribose (CH2OH-CHOH-CHOH-CHOH-CHO) and deoxyribose ( CH2OH-CHOH-CHOH-CH2-CHO).


Also known as oligosaccharide: dehydrated and condensed from 2 to 10 monosaccharide molecules. The nutritionally important oligosaccharides are disaccharides and are also more common.

Common disaccharides have

1 sucrose, which is widely found in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds of plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beet. The sucrose molecule is a condensation of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule.

2 maltose, also known as sucrose, is about half the sweetness of sucrose. The maltose molecule is formed by dehydration condensation of two glucose molecules.

3 Lactose, named for its presence in the milk of mammals. The lactose molecule is a combination of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule.

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(polysaccharide): formed by the condensation of hundreds or even tens of thousands of monosaccharide molecules, the general formula is (C6H10O5)n, the most important is starch and cellulose.

Uniform polysaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin (chitin); heterogeneous polysaccharides: glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, etc.).

Binding sugar

(complex sugar, glycoconjugate, glycoconjugate): glycolipid, glycoprotein (proteoglycan), sugar-nucleotide, and the like.

Sugar derivative

Sugar alcohol, sugar acid, sugar amine, glycoside eshiwei have a chemical formula of C6H12O6.

Biological functions

(1) Provide energy. Plant starch and animal glycogen are both forms of energy storage.
(2) The carbon skeleton of substance metabolism provides a carbon skeleton for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.
(3) The skeleton of the cell. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are the main components of plant cell walls, and peptidoglycan is the main component of prokaryotic cell walls.
(4) Intercellular recognition and biomolecular recognition. The oligosaccharide chain of glycoprotein on the cell membrane surface is involved in cell-to-cell recognition.

The cell membrane surface of some cells contains sugar molecules or oligosaccharide chains, which constitute the antenna of the cell and participate in cell communication. Red cell surface ABO blood group determinant to contain fucose.


There are three main catabolic pathways of glucose, which are classified according to their reaction conditions, reaction processes and final products: 1) anaerobic oxidation (glycolysis) in the absence of oxygen; 2) in aerobic conditions Aerobic oxidation; 3) pentose phosphate pathway to produce pentose phosphate and NADPH.

Human Body Absorption

Sugars include sucrose ( brown sugar, white sugar, sugar, brown sugar ), glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, starch, dextrin, and glycogen marshmallow.

In these sugars, in addition to glucose, fructose and galactose can be directly absorbed by the human body, the rest of the sugar must be converted into a basic monosaccharide in the body before it can be absorbed.

The main function

The main function of sugar is to provide heat. Each gram of glucose is oxidized in the human body to produce 4 kilocalories of energy, and about 70% of the energy required by the human body is provided by sugar. In addition, sugar is an important substance that constitutes tissues and protects liver function.

Related research

Benefit of Sugar

Many researchers have confirmed that as long as the right amount of intake, the best time to master the sugar, is beneficial to the human body. sugar compounds

For example, when bathing, you need to sweat a lot and consume physical strength. You need to add water and calories. Eating sugar can prevent collapse.

When you exercise, you need to consume heat. Sugar can provide heat faster than other foods. When you are hungry, sugar can be quickly absorbed.

Improve blood sugar; when dizziness is nausea, eating some sugar can raise blood sugar to stabilize the mood, and it is beneficial to return to normal; eating sugar food after meals can make people feel energetic and energetic while studying and working.

According to reports, American scientists have shown that more than a thousand primary and secondary school students have eaten some chocolate after meals, only 2% of those who sleep in 1-2 classes in the afternoon, while the control (not eating chocolate) is as high as 11%.


In addition, hundreds of pilots have found that when they order chocolate, sweet desserts or sweet drinks at 2 pm every day, the car accident is much less.

Eating sugar does not cause obesity

Many food nutrition and medical experts in China believe that simple obesity is caused by the loss of balance between total calorie intake and consumption, and it cannot be attributed to sugar.

The results of the sugar study conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration Task Force believe that sugar-induced obesity is unfounded.

The reason is: every spoon of sugar contains 16 calories, and each spoon of butter or other fat foods contains 100 calories, so sugar is not the cause of fat.

Research by several Swedish medical scientists has further confirmed that the consumption of sugar does not lead to the formation of a fat layer in the human body.

This research is called a “small revolution.” According to medical experts, fat people always have more fat than sugar, so people who lose weight should first reduce their consumption of fatty foods.

Europe’s main dietary nutritionist, Astor of Sweden, believes that if you do not eat too much fat food, you can safely increase the amount of sugar without worrying about obesity. sugar compounds

Moderate consumption does not affect health

Due to the increasing number of articles on the harmful effects of sugar on human health, some unilateral publicity paradoxes have made people feel worried about eating sugar and feel “difficult to eat sugar.”

The US Food and Drug Administration’s Task Force’s conclusion on sugar research is that sugar, in addition to causing dental caries, is unfounded for other diseases. As part of a reasonable diet, eating sugar is like eating other things. As long as you eat the right amount, it will not hinder your health.

Energy supply

Sucrose, glucose, and maltose are familiar sugars, and they are substances that directly supply human energy. Honey contains fructose and glucose. Fructose is the sweetest sugar. The ratio of the sweetness of fructose, sucrose, and glucose was determined to be 9:5:4 according to the experiment.

About the calories of various sugars

Maltose 100 (g) calories 331 kcal
Sucrose 100 (g) calories 389 kcal
Cotton white sugar 100 (g) calories 396 kcal
White sugar 100 (g) heat 400 kcal
Honey 100 (g) calories 321 kcal
Bubble Gum 100 (g) calories 360 kcal
Toffee 100 (g) calories 407 kcal
Marshmallow 100 (g) calories 321 kcal
Gumdrop 100 (g) calories 368 kcal
Horseshoe Gummy 100 (g) calories 359 kcal
Peanut Nougat 100 (g) calories 432 kcal
Sesame South Sugar 100 (g) calories 538 kcal
Fresh peach juice sugar 100 (g) calories 397 kcal
Acid tricolor sugar 100 (g) calories 397 kcal
Crisp sugar 100 (g) calories 436 kcal
Crystal sugar 100 (g) calories 395 kcal
Hershey ice hockey lemon tea taste mint (sugar-free) 22 (g (g)) calories 8 kcal
Assorted candy 100 (g) calories 399 kcal
Chocolate (Vivi) [Chocolate Wafer] 100 (g) Calories 572 kcal
Chocolate (wine core) 100 (g) calories 400 kcal chocolate 100 (g) calories 586 kcal

No sweet sugar

Is all the sugar sweet? No. For example, milk has 4% lactose, which is a sugar that has no sweetness. On the other hand, is it sweet to have sugar? Can’t say that. For example, ethylene glycol and glycerin are sweet, but they are not sugar. The most common tasteless sugar is the starch in the rice. sugar compounds


Sucrose should not be ingested in large quantities
Sucrose is the carbohydrate with the highest calorific value, and excessive intake can cause diseases such as obesity, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and dental caries.

Fasting should not be eaten in large quantities
British scientists have found that eating a large amount of sugar on an empty stomach will suddenly increase blood sugar levels in the blood, destroying the body’s acid-base balance and the balance of various beneficial microorganisms in the body, which is not conducive to human health.

Excessive consumption affects child development
Eating too much sugar can affect the body’s fat consumption, causing fat accumulation; eating too much sugar can also affect calcium metabolism. Some scholars believe that if the amount of sugar eaten reaches 16-18% of the total food intake, the calcium metabolism in the body will be disordered, which will hinder the calcification in the body.

According to a Japanese survey, the rate of fractures in children has increased, and they believe that hyperglycemia is an important cause of fractures.


Eating too much sugar can cause a feeling of fullness, poor appetite, affecting the intake of food, leading to a lack of multiple nutrients. Children’s long-term high-sugar diet directly affects the growth and development of children’s bones, leading to rickets. sugar compounds

Children who eat more sugar, if they do not pay attention to oral hygiene, provide good conditions for growth and reproduction of bacteria in the mouth, which can easily cause dental caries and mouth ulcers.

To avoid diseases such as dental caries, myopia, cartilage, and digestive tract, the World Health Organization has called for parents not to let their children eat too many sweets.

Sugar is one of the important substances for human survival

Sugar is one of the three major nutrients in the human body and is the main source of human body heat. The heat energy supplied by sugar to the human body accounts for 60-70% of the total heat energy required by the human body. Except for cellulose, all sugar substances are the source of heat energy.

Sugar is the most abundant organic compound in nature. Sugars are mainly found in various forms of starch, sugar, and cellulose in grains, cereals, potatoes, beans, and rice noodles and vegetables and fruits. It accounts for about 80% of its dry matter in plants, and it has very little sugar in animal foods, accounting for about 2% of its dry matter.

Excessive consumption is prone to related diseases

Some experts believe that sugar is more harmful to humans than smoke and alcoholic beverages. The World Health Organization has investigated the causes of death in 23 countries and concluded that sugar-loving is more than smoking.

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Long-term consumption of foods high in sugar can shorten the lifespan of people by 20 years. Therefore, in 1995, the World Health Organization proposed a new slogan of “Global Sugar Relief”.

The World Health Organization survey found that excessive intake of sugar can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, vascular sclerosis, and cerebral hemorrhage, diabetes and so on.

A long-term high-sugar diet can cause imbalances in the human body and cause various hazards to human health. Because sugar is an acidic substance, excessive sugar consumption will change the pH of human blood, which is acidic and weakens the ability of human white blood cells to resist external viruses, making people susceptible to various diseases.
People who have long been fond of sweets are prone to cause a variety of eye diseases. Experts also suggested that senile cataracts are also associated with excessive sweets. sugar compounds

They investigated 50 cases of cataract patients and found that 34% of patients have the habit fond of sweets, they believe that this grape glucose metabolism-related disorders.

Sugar-containing hazard

As for eating sugar, some people like to keep a piece of sugar for a few minutes, which is actually a bad habit. Because human mouth has a lactobacillus, it can ferment sugar to produce lactic acid. The longer the sugar is contained in the mouth, the more lactic acid is produced and the greater the chance of caries. sugar compounds

Sugar should not eat too much

Generally speaking, “sugar” generally means free sugar, that is, added sugar, including glucose, sucrose (sucrose, brown sugar), syrup, etc., and chemically belongs to monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Each gram of sugar contains about 4 calories, and if it is over-supplied, it can’t be consumed in time, and the excess calories are converted into fat. In addition, excessive intake of foods and beverages containing added sugar will cause blood sugar to rise rapidly, leading to an increase in insulin in the blood, insulin will make the body store fat more efficiently, cause obesity, and increase the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.

Classification of common sugars

According to the degree of purification, source, form, and color of sugar, it can be roughly divided into the following categories:

1. Refined white granulated sugar: referred to as granulated sugar, it is granular crystal. According to the size of the crystal, there are three kinds of coarse sand, medium sand, and fine sand. It is characterized by high purity, low moisture, and low impurities.

The domestic sugar content is higher than 99.45% and the water content is lower than 0.12%. According to the standard, it is divided into three grades: excellent grade, first grade and second grade, which are suitable for bread and pastry production.

2. coarse granulated sugar belongs to unrefined raw sugar, low purity, more impurities, large water, light yellow colors, such as domestically produced No. 2 sugar and imported Brazilian sugar, Cuban sugar.

3. cotton white sugar: crystals are small and uniform, the color is white, the texture is soft, the purity is lower than white sugar, the sugar content is about 98%, the water is less than 2%, because of the high cost, it is used for high-grade food. sugar compounds

4. Red sugar: granular crystal, color brownish yellow, high impurity, but can be used for special purposes.

5. Brown sugar (sweet sugar, brown sugar): It is generally prepared by the soil method, with the most impurities and the lowest purity, but it has its special flavor and its coloring in baking is fast, and it has certain application.

6. brown sugar powder: the purity is higher than brown sugar, and the scale is convenient to use, and the amount is more than brown sugar.

7. rock sugar and borneol: inconvenient to scale, high cost, less application, and limited to high-end food.

8. Glucose powder and glucose syrup: The glucose syrup is obtained from the starch by enzyme catalysis or hydrolysis in the presence of an acid, and then spray-dried to obtain powdered glucose, generally containing 8%.

9. Malt block and maltose syrup: It is obtained from barley and wheat by the action of malt enzyme. The finished product produced in China is generally called sucrose.

10. Inverted syrup: prepared by heating sucrose and water in the presence of hydrochloric acid. It is characterized by low viscosity and good transparency. It is an essential raw material for making a wide moon cake.

11. Glucose syrup (isomeric syrup): converts a part of glucose in the invert syrup into fructose under the action of glucose.

The industrially produced fruit glucose syrup has a heterogeneous conversion rate of 42%, and the sweetness at this time is equal to that of sucrose.

If the conversion rate is increased again, a higher sweetness can be obtained.

12. honey: the secretion of plant nectary gland, the sweetness is high, 60% ~ 80% is the monosaccharide easily absorbed by the human body, and has a special flavor.

13. molasses: When the sugar factory makes sugar, the mother liquor left after the syrup is concentrated, the most impurities. sugar compounds

However, it has a special aroma and is often used in the production of whole wheat bread.

Xylene, caramel is a confectionery, boiled sugar at a temperature close to or above 115 ° C, so that the light yellow color is nearly brown, with a scorching aroma, that is, caramel. It is generally used when it is used as a pudding. Eat more and be harmful. sugar compounds

Other related information

A method for synthesizing sucralose, which is characterized in that sucrose is used as raw material, and a solution of N, N-dimethylformamide is added, which is under the action of a sulfate solid acid catalyst or a sulfate solid acid catalyst adsorbed on a polymer carrier.

sugar compounds

It undergoes transesterification with ethyl acetate to form sucrose-6-acetate, and sucrose-6-acetate is then chlorinated and alcohol to form sucralose. The invention has the advantages of simple process, high product purity, and low production cost, and is very suitable for industrial production.

“Sugar” is still a novel, the author cotton; describes a “problem girl” red and her story of a few boys and girls who also have “problems” in the middle of youth.

As a sweet substance, white sugar, brown sugar, and rock sugar are often eaten by people. The sugar-making method is not complicated.

The sugar cane or sugar bee is pressed out of the juice, the impurities are filtered off, and an appropriate amount of lime water is added to the filtrate to neutralize the acid contained therein, and then filtered to remove the precipitate, and the carbon dioxide is passed into the filtrate to make the lime.

The water is precipitated into calcium carbonate, and the filtration is repeated, and the obtained filtrate is an aqueous solution of sucrose. sugar compounds

The sucrose aqueous solution is placed in a vacuum apparatus, evaporated under reduced pressure, concentrated, and cooled, and a reddish brown, slightly viscous crystal is precipitated, which is brown sugar.

If you want to make white sugar, you must dissolve the brown sugar in water, add an appropriate amount of bone carbon or activated carbon, adsorb the colored substances in the brown sugar water, filter, heat, concentrate, and cool the filtrate.

A white crystal – white sugar appears. White sugar is purer than brown sugar, but still contains some water, and then the white sugar is heated to a suitable temperature to remove water, and a colorless transparent massive crystal, rock sugar, is obtained. It can be seen that rock sugar has the highest purity and sweetest.

When it comes to sweet substances, people naturally think of saccharin. Saccharin is not the “equo of sugar”. It is not made from sugar but is made from black and smelly coal tar. Saccharin has no nutritional value.

A small amount of saccharin is harmless to the human body, but excessive consumption of saccharin is harmful to the human body. So saccharin can be eaten, but it can’t be used more.

Proper consumption of white sugar helps to increase the body’s absorption of calcium, but too much will hinder the absorption of calcium.

The sugar nourishes the yin and stimulates the body, moistens the lungs and relieves cough, and has a good auxiliary therapeutic effect on the lung dry cough, dry cough without phlegm, and blood stasis.

Although brown sugar has more impurities, the nutrients remain better. It has the effects of benefiting Qi, slowing the middle, helping the spleen to eat, supplementing blood and breaking silt, and also has the effect of dispelling cold and relieving pain. sugar compounds

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Therefore, women’s dysmenorrhea caused by cold body weakness or drinking brown sugar after childbirth is often effective. Brown sugar is also very good for the elderly, especially those who have a serious illness. In addition, brown sugar can prevent the hardening of blood vessels, and it is not easy to induce dental diseases such as dental caries.