Organic Chemistry

Solubility

Solubility Mixture:

The mass obtained by mixing up two or more substance in any proportion by weight, so that the properties and identity of each retain are the same is called mixture.

a) Homogeneous mixture: Mass in which the components of the particle of the mixture are equally distributed throughout is called homogeneous mixture. Component particles of it can’t be seen by necked eyes. E.g. salt solution, air, brass, soda water, etc.

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b) Heterogeneous mixture: Mass in which particles component of the mixture is not equally distributed throughout is called heterogeneous mixture. Component particles of it can be seen by naked eyes. E.g. smoke, oily water, sandy water, milk etc.

Note: On the basis of the size of the particle, mixtures are three types, i) solution ii) colloids iii) suspension.

i) Solution:

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances (i.e. solvent and solute) is called a solution. The solution is mostly transparent in which the particle size is ≤ 10-7cm. In aqueous solution, the solvent is water (aq.) and in an alcoholic solution, alcohol is solvent (alc.).

ii) Colloids:

It is a homogeneous mixture in which the diameter of Colloid particles ranges from 10-5 to 10-7cm. Colloid solution scatters light (i.e. Tyndal effect). E.g.: blood, milk, smoke, starch, gum etc.
Sol →solid dissolve in liquid.
Gel → Liquid dissolve in solid.
Emulation → Liquid dissolves in liquid – milk, grease.

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iii) Suspensions:

It is a heterogeneous solution in which the diameter of particle size is > 10-5cm. suspension particles can be seen by necked eyes. The components of the suspension are separated by sedimentation and filtration. E.g. Solid in liquid and solid in a gas.

Dilute solution and Concentrated solution:
The solution contains relatively less amount of solute is called a dilute solution and the solution which contain a relatively large amount of solute is called concentrated solution.
Types of Solution:

i) Unsaturated: The solution which can dissolve excess solute at the given temperature is called the unsaturated solution. It is less dense.
ii) Saturated: The solution which is unable to dissolve excess solute at the given temperature is called a saturated solution.
iii) Super saturated: The solution which already contains an excess amount of solute than required at a given temperature is called supersaturated solution.

The solubility of some solute at 30℃ are
S.N. Substance Solubility
1 CuSO4 25
2 NaCl 36
3 NaNO3 95
4 Sugar 220
5 KNO3 27
Information obtained from the solubility curve:
1. The solubility of a substance at a different temperature can be compared.
2. The solubility of different substance at the same temperature can be compared.
Questions: At 20℃, 5.1 g of sugar dissolves 2.5 g of water to form a saturated solution. Find the solubility of sugar.

(Ans: 204)

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