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Radium Element is a very radioactive element, located in the seventh cycle of the chemical periodic table, Group IIA, atomic number 88, element symbol Ra. Pure metal radium is almost colorless, but exposure to air reacts with nitrogen to produce black Radium Nitride (Ra3N2).All isotopes of Radium Element have strong radioactivity. The most stable isotope is Radium-226, with a half-life of about 1600 years and decays to Rn-222. When radium decays, ionizing radiation is generated, causing the fluorescent substance to emit light. It is a new element discovered by Madame Curie, and the discovery of radium is great for science.

On October 27, 2017, the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer published a preliminary list of carcinogens, and Radium-224, Radium-226, Radium-228, and its decay products were listed on a list of carcinogens.

Discoverer Profile of Radium Element

Marie Curie (Marie Curie) and Pierre Curie (Pierre Curie) found Year: 1902

Born on May 15, 1859, in a family of doctors in Paris, France. During his childhood and acxdolescence, his personality was contemplative, he was not easy to change his mind, he was silent, he was slow to respond, he did not adapt to the perfusion knowledge training of ordinary schools, and he could not follow the class.

marie-curie-pierre-curie

People said that he was slow in his mind, so he had never been to elementary school since childhood. Father often took him to the countryside to collect movements, implants, mineral specimens, cultivated his strong interest in nature, and learned the initial methods of how to observe things and how to explain them.

When Curie was 14 years old, his parents asked him for a number of teachers. His mathematical progress was extremely fast. At the age of 16, he obtained a Bachelor of Science degree. After entering the University of Paris, he obtained a master’s degree in Physics.

In 1880, when he was 21 years old, he studied the properties of crystals with his brother Jacques Curie and discovered the piezoelectric effect of the crystal. In 1891, he studied the relationship between the magnetic properties of matter and temperature and established Curie’s Law: the magnetization coefficient of paramagnetic properties is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature. In his scientific research, he also created and improved many new instruments, such as piezoelectric crystal scales, Curie balances, and Curie electrometers. On July 25, 1895, Pierre Curie married Mary Currie.

Mary Adams Crow Dovski Curie (Marie Skłodowska-Curie) 1867 Nian 11 Yue 7 was born in Tsarist Russia under the rule of Warsaw, the son of the school teacher. At the age of 16, she graduated from the Warsaw Medal with a gold medal. She was forced to work as a tutor for six years because her family was unable to continue her studies. Later, with his own savings and the help of his sister, he went to Paris to study in 1891. At the University of Paris, she studied diligently under extremely difficult conditions. After four years, she obtained two master’s degrees in physics and mathematics.

Radium

The following year after the Curie couple got married, in 1896, Becquerel discovered the radioactivity of uranium salt, which caused great interest to the young couple. Mrs. Curie was determined to study the essence of this unusual phenomenon. She first examined all the chemical elements known at the time and found that the compounds of lanthanum and cerium were also radioactive. She further examined the radioactivity of various complex minerals and unexpectedly found that the asphalt uranium mine was more than four times more radioactive than pure uranium oxide. She concluded that uranium ore, in addition to uranium, clearly contained a more radioactive element.

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With his experience as a physicist, Curie immediately realized the importance of this research, letting go of the crystal research he was working on, and working with Mrs. Curie to find new elements. Soon after, they determined that there was no one in the uranium ore, but two undiscovered elements. In July 1898, the first-named one of them as Polonium to commemorate the motherland of Madame Curie. Not long after, on December 1898, they named another element radium.

In order to get pure sputum and radium, they have worked hard. In a broken shed, I worked around the clock for three years and nine months. I used my iron rod to stir the bitumen uranium slag boiling in the pot. The eyes and throat were endured by the smoke from the pot. After repeated refining, I got a tenth of a gram from the bitumen of bituminous uranium slag. Due to the discovery of radioactive material, the Curie and Becquerel jointly won the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Mary Curie discovered a chemical element, radium, with the chemical symbol Ra, atomic number 88, atomic weight 226.0254, belonging to the periodic system IIA, a member of the alkaline earth metal and a naturally radioactive element. In December 1898, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie isolated radium chloride from the slag after extracting uranium from the uranium ore. The new atomic weight of radium was measured in 1907 and electrolytically chlorinated in 1910.

The radium method produces metal radium (white metal). Its English name comes from the Latin Radius, meaning ” Ray “. Radium content in the crust of 1 × 10-9%, has been found to the mass number of the isotope 206 to 230, in addition to 223 Ra, 224 Ra, 226 Ra, 228 Ra is a natural radioactive isotope, the rest are artificial Method of synthesis. Radium is present in all of the uranium, every 2.8 tons of uranium ore contains 1 gram of radium.

Discover a brief history of Radium Element

After Berkley’s pioneering observation and research on the radioactivity of uranium, it was discovered that uranium rays, like X-rays, can make electricity and other gases conductive, and bismuth compounds have been discovered. Similar properties. Since 1896, Madame Curie and her husband have systematically discovered, looking for this effect in various elements and their compounds as well as in nature.

Radium

The Berkley Phenomenon has aroused the strong interest of the Curies. Where did the power of the ray come from? What is the nature of this radiation?

Mrs. Curie devoted her entire body and mind to the study of uranium salt. She has extensively collected and studied various uranium salt ores. She was attracted by the magical rays of uranium salt ore. She dedicated her special love to this special ore.

Mrs. Curie, who has undergone rigorous and systematic chemistry education, thought of the uranium salt ore that there was no reason to prove that uranium was the only chemical element that emits radiation. She suspects that there will be other elements that have the same power, but people still don’t know.

Based on the elements of Mendeleev’s elemental periodicity, she measured one by one and soon found that another compound of lanthanum also emitted rays automatically, similar to uranium rays, and the strength was similar.

Mrs. Curie realized that this phenomenon is by no means just a characteristic of uranium. It must be given a new name. Mrs. Curie named it “radioactive”, substances such as uranium and thorium that have this special “radiation” function. It is called “radioactive element”.

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Later, with the help of her husband, Mr. Pierre, she measured all the minerals that could be collected, and she wondered which minerals were radioactive.

In the measurement, she obtained another dramatic discovery. In a bituminous uranium mine from Bohemia, she found that its radioactivity was many times larger than originally thought.

So where does this abnormal and excessive radioactivity come from? The use of uranium and plutonium in these bituminous uranium mines must not explain the intensity of the radioactivity she observed.

Therefore, there can only be one explanation. These bituminous minerals contain a new element that is much stronger than the radioactivity of uranium and thorium, and it is not an element known to man at the time. It must be an unknown element.

Mrs. Curie’s discovery attracted the attention of Mr. Pierre, and the Curies joined hands to drive a powerful attack on the unknown realm of science.

In the extremely rudimentary laboratory, through the long-term efforts of the Curie couple, in July 1898, they announced the discovery of this new element, which is 400 times higher than pure uranium radioactivity.

To commemorate her suffering country, the new element is named Polonium (meaning Poland).

Polonium 

In December 1898, the Curies announced that they had discovered a second type of radioactive element based on a large number of experimental facts. The new element was more radioactive than cesium, and they named the new element “Radium.”

However, since there were no samples of radon and radium, and there was no atomic weight of radon and radium, at that time, almost no one in the scientific community was willing to believe in their shocking new discoveries.

Radium Element

The Curies are determined to extract samples of radon and radium, no matter what the price, in order to prove their existence, on the other hand, to make themselves more confident.

The Curies are an economically struggling intellectual who cannot afford the high cost of buying bituminous uranium. But they were not intimidated by the “Road Blocker” in front of them, they almost tried a variety of methods.

After numerous twists and turns, the Austrian government officially decided to donate a ton of residual slag to the Curies and promised that if they needed a lot of slag in the future, they could supply them under the most favorable conditions.

Mrs. Curie immediately put in a heavy extraction work. Every time she put more than 20 kilograms of waste slag into a melting pot and heated it for a few hours, continuously stirring a boiling iron residue with a large iron rod. Then, extract only one part per million of trace substances.

From 1898 to 1902, after countless extractions, nearly one ton of ore residue was processed, and finally, 0.1 g of radium salt was obtained, and its atomic weight was determined to be 226.

The discovery of radium broke out in the real world of revolution. In 1903, the Curies won both the Nobel Prize in Physics. The great success of Mrs. Curie is not easy to obtain. It condenses the amount of sweat and tears of the Curies. It is the crystallization of the common efforts of the Curies.

Elemental form

CAS No.: 7440-14-4

Oxidation state: Mainly Ra+2

Atomic volume: (cubic centimeters / mole) 45.20

The content of elements in seawater: (ppm)

Peripheral electronic layer layout: 7s2

Ionization energy (kJ / mol)

M – M+ 509.3

M+ – M2+ 979

M2+ – M3+ 3300

M3+ – M4+ 4400

M4+ – M5+ 5700

M5+ – M6+ 7300

M6+ – M7+ 8600

M7+ – M8+ 9900

M8+ – M9+ 13500

M9+ – M10+ 15100

Unit cell parameters:-

a = 514.8 pm

b = 514.8 pm

c = 514.8 pm

α = 90°

β = 90°

γ = 90°

Element Description

Density 6.0 g / cm 3 (20 ° C). The melting point of 700 ° C, the boiling point of about 1140 ° C. Silver white shiny soft metal. It is unstable in the air and easily combines with nitrogen and oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is evolved by the action of water to form Ra (OH)2 Hydroxide.

Soluble in dilute acid. The chemical properties are very similar to those of strontium, all radium salts are isomorphous with the corresponding cerium salts. Radium Element can produce sulfates, carbonates, chromates, and iodates that are only slightly soluble in water, radium chlorides, bromides, and hydroxides are soluble in water.

Radium Element is known to have 13 isotopes, and 226Ra has the longest half-life of 1622 years.

The following are the various reactions of radium

React with nitrogen

3Ra + N2 = Ra3N2

React with oxygen

2Ra + O2 = 2RaO

Reaction with sulfur

Ra + S = RaS

Reacts with halogen

Ra + F2 = RaF2

Ra + Cl2 = RaCl2

Ra + Br2 = RaBr2

Ra + I2 = Ral2

React with water

Ra+2H2O=Ra (OH)2+H2

Radium introduction

Radium element symbol Ra, atomic number 88, atomic weight 226.03. The peripheral electronic arrangement is 7s, the density is 6.0g/cm, the melting point is 700°C, and the boiling point is <1140°C. It is located in Group IIA of the seventh cycle. Silver white shiny soft metal. The first ionization energy is 509.37 kJ/mol and the electronegativity is 0.9. It is chemically active, unstable in the air, and easily combined with nitrogen and oxygen in the air.

Reacts with water to form Radium Hydroxide (Ra (OH)2) and releases hydrogen. Soluble in dilute acid. The chemical properties are very similar to Barium. The chloride, bromide, and hydroxide of radium are easily soluble in water, and the sulfate and carbonate are slightly soluble in water.

Radium Element is known to have multiple isotopes, and radium-226 has the longest half-life of 1622 years. Radium has strong radioactivity. When it decays, it emits both alpha and gamma rays and emits a lot of heat (586.18 joules per gram of radium per hour).

The fission produces Hydrogen and Nitrogen. Under the irradiation of radium rays, water, ammonia and hydrogen chloride can be decomposed, and oxygen can be converted into red oxygen. Zinc sulfide, calcium sulfide and other sulfides of alkaline earth metals, irradiation laser line excitation energy emitted phosphorescent light green pastel. The laser line can destroy the animal body and kill cells and bacteria.

Radiation can be used to treat cancer, and 10 ppm of radium salt is mixed into zinc sulfide and calcium sulfide to produce luminescent paint or a luminescent plastic. Radium salt A mixed preparation of glutinous rice, which can be used as a neutron source for detecting petroleum resources and rock composition.

Radium exists in nature in the form of chemical, mainly in a variety of minerals, soil, mineral water, and seabed silt. Radium is particularly rare in nature, accounting for only eight billionths of the total number of crustal atoms.

In 1898 French scientists Pierre and Marie Curie from pitchblende discovery of Radium, Marie Curie in 1910 from pitchblende to obtain pure radium metal. The Greek original of radium is a ray. The radium amalgam is obtained by electrolyzing a radium chloride solution with a mercury cathode and a palladium-ruthenium anode, and then thermally decomposed in hydrogen.

Element structure

Crystal structure:

The unit cell is a body-centered cubic unit cell, and each unit cell contains two metal atoms.

A chemical element. The chemical symbol Ra, atomic number 88, atomic weight 226.0254, belongs to the periodic system IIA, is a member of alkaline earth metals and a naturally radioactive element. In 1898, M. Curie and P.

Curie separated radium bromide from the slag after extracting uranium from bituminous uranium ore. In 1910, metal radium was obtained by electrolytic radium chloride. Its English name is derived from Latin. Radius, meaning “ray”.

Radium is a fluorescent blue/silver-white metal that is the most active alkaline earth metal. Radium can rapidly form Nitrogen Oxide (Ra2N3) and Radium Oxide (RaO) with nitrogen and oxygen in the air and reacts with water to form radium hydroxide and hydrogen.

The outermost electron layer of Radium Element has two electrons with an oxidation state of +2, which only forms a +2 valence compound. The radium salt and the corresponding sulfonium salt are isomorphous compounds with similar chemical properties.

Radium Chloride, radium bromide, radium nitrate are soluble in water, radium sulfate, radium carbonate, chromic acid radium insoluble in water. Radium is highly toxic. It can replace calcium in the human body and concentrate on the bone.

When it is acutely poisoned, it will cause bone marrow damage and severe damage to the hematopoietic tissue. Chronic poisoning can cause osteoma and leukemia. Radium is a by-product of the production of uranium. When uranium is leached from uranium ore by sulphuric acid, radium sulfate is present in the slag and then converted into radium chloride. The strontium salt is used as a carrier for fractional crystallization.

Radium metal by electrolysis of chloride of radium obtained. Radium and its decay products emit gamma rays, which can destroy malignant tissues in the human body. Therefore, radium can cure cancer, but it also destroys benign tissues in the human body.

Element source

It exists in a variety of ores and mineral springs, but its content is extremely rare, and more is derived from asphalt uranium ore. In the treatment of uranium from bituminous uranium ore, radium is often recovered in the form of sulfate in the acid-insoluble residue together with strontium. At that time, the Curies took 3 years and 9 months to extract 0.1 gram of radium.

Radiation of radium

Radioactive elements produce different substances after decaying for a period of time (various decay rates of various elements). Radium is one of them.

Radiation Decay Rate

The decay rate of radium is proportional to its existing quantity

R–>dR=Rλdt–>dR/R=λdt—>LnR=Ce^(λt)t=0,R=R0—>R= R0e^(λt)

radium after 1600 years, only 1/2 of the original amount

R0—>1/2=e^(1600λ)–>λ=(-Ln2)/1600–>R=R0e ^[(-Ln2)*t/1600]

Radium Alpha decay Equation

The picture on the right is the alpha equation of radium.

Radium Uses

Radium can emit both alpha and gamma rays and generate radioactive gas helium.

Radiation from radium can destroy and kill cells and bacteria. Therefore, it is commonly used to treat cancer and the like. In addition, the mixed preparation of radium salt and strontium powder can be used as a neutron source to detect petroleum resources and rock composition.

Radium is one of the materials of the atomic bomb. Old-fashioned fluorescent paints also contain a small amount of radium. Neutron bombardment ra-225 can get Actinium.

Use radium isotopes to find uranium in ancient rivers.