Plastic Uses

Plastics are generally classified into three types, general plastics, engineering plastics, and specialty plastics, depending on the various characteristics of the various plastics.plastic Usage

1 general plastic

Generally refers to plastics with large output, wide application, good formability, and low price. General plastic

There are five major varieties, namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and acrylonitrile- butadiene -styrene copolymer (ABS).

These five categories of plastics occupy the vast majority of plastic raw materials, and the rest can be classified into special plastics such as PPS, PPO, PA, PC, POM, etc., which are used in daily life products. plastic Usage

plastic usage

It is used in high-end fields such as engineering, defense and science, and technology, such as automotive, aerospace, construction, and communications. Plastics can be classified into thermoplastics and thermosets according to their plasticity classification.

In general, thermoplastic products can be recycled, while thermosetting plastics cannot. According to the optical properties of plastics, they can be divided into transparent, translucent and opaque materials, such as PS, PMMA, AS, PC, etc., which are transparent plastics. Most other plastics are opaque plastics.

Common plastic varieties performance and use

  1. Polyethylene: Commonly used polyethylene can be divided into low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HD)
  2. PE and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE). Among the three, HDPE has better thermal, electrical and mechanical properties, while LDPE and LLDPE have better flexibility, impact properties and film forming properties. LDPE and LLDPE are mainly used for packaging film, agricultural film, plastic modification, etc., while HDPE is widely used in various fields such as film, pipe, and injection daily necessities.
  3. Polypropylene: Relatively speaking, polypropylene has more varieties and more complex uses, and there are many fields. The main types are homopolypropylene, block copolymer polypropylene (copp) and random copolymer polypropylene (rapp). the different uses, mainly used in homopolymerization drawing, fibers, injection, BOPP film field, polypropylene copolymer is mainly used in household appliances injection member, a reforming raw material, products for daily injections, pipes, etc., atactic polypropylene main Used in transparent products, high performance products, high performance pipes, etc.
  4. Polyvinyl chloride: Due to its low cost, the product has self-flame retardant properties, so it is widely used in the construction field, especially for sewer pipes, plastic steel doors and windows, plates, artificial leather and so on.plastic Usage
  5. Polystyrene: As a transparent raw material, it can be used in a wide range of applications, such as automotive lampshades, daily transparent, transparent cups, cans, etc.
  6. ABS: It is a versatile engineering plastic with outstanding physical and mechanical properties. It is widely used in household appliances, panels, masks, assemblies, accessories, etc., especially household appliances such as washing machines, air conditioners, refrigerators, electric fans, etc. The dosage is very large, and it is also widely used in plastic modification.

2 Engineering Plastics

Generally speaking, it can bear a certain external force, has good mechanical properties, high and low-temperature resistance, good dimensional stability, and can be used as engineering plastics, such as polyamide and polysulfone. In engineering plastics, it is divided into two categories:

general engineering plastics and special engineering plastics. Engineering plastics in mechanical

Energy, durability, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and other aspects can meet higher requirements, and processing is more convenient and can replace metal materials.

Engineering plastics are widely used in electrical and electronic, automotive, construction, office equipment, machinery, aerospace, and other industries. It has become an international trend to replace steel and plastic. plastic Usage

General engineering plastics include polyamide, polyoxymethylene, polycarbonate, modified polyphenylene ether, thermoplastic polyester, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, methyl pentene polymer, vinyl alcohol copolymer and the like.

Special engineering plastics also have a cross-linked type of non-crosslinking type. Crosslinked include polyamines maleic acid amide, polytriazine, crosslinked polyimide, heat-resistant epoxy resin, and the like means. Non-crosslinked types include polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyimide, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and the like.

3 Special Plastics

Generally refers to plastics with special functions that can be used in special applications such as aviation and aerospace. plastic Usage

For example, fluoroplastics and silicones have outstanding special functions such as high-temperature resistance and self-lubrication, and reinforced plastics and foams have special properties such as high strength and high cushioning properties. These plastics belong to the category of special plastics.

  1. Reinforced plastic:

Reinforced plastic materials can be divided into three types: granular (such as calcium plastic reinforced plastic), fibrous (such as glass fiber or glass cloth reinforced plastic), and sheet (such as mica reinforced plastic). plastic Usage

According to the material, it can be divided into cloth-based reinforced plastics (such as rag reinforced or asbestos reinforced plastic), inorganic mineral-filled plastics (such as quartz or mica filled plastic), and fiber reinforced plastics (such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic).

foarm

  1. Foam:

Foams can be divided into hard, semi-rigid and flexible foams. Rigid foam has no flexibility and has a high compression hardness. It only deforms when it reaches a certain stress value. It cannot be restored after the stress is relieved.

The flexible foam is flexible, has a small compression hardness, and is easily deformed. Reverted to its original shape with less residual distortion; the flexibility and other properties of semi-rigid foam are between the hard and flexible foam.

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Processing method classification

According to different molding methods of various plastics, it can be divided into various types such as film pressing, laminating, injection, extrusion, blow molding, casting plastic and reaction injection plastic.

Membrane pressure plastics are mostly plastics with physical properties similar to those of general solid plastics; laminated plastics are fabrics impregnated with resin, which are combined into a whole by superposition and hot pressing injection, extrusion and blowing Plastic is a plastic similar in physical properties and processing properties to general thermoplastics cast plastic refers to a liquid resin mixture that can be hardened into a certain shape in a mold without pressure or a slight pressure, such as MC. Nylon, etc.; reaction injection plastic is a plastic which is injected into a film cavity by a liquid raw material, and is reacted and solidified into a certain shape product, such as polyurethane. plastic Usage

Plastic

Development

The beginning of the times

The first fully synthetic plastic was from the American Belgian Leo Hendrick Beckland. On July 14, 1907, he registered a patent for phenolic plastics.

Baekeland is the son of a shoemaker and a maid. Born in 1863 in Ghent, Belgium. In 1884, 21-year-old Baekeland received his Ph.D. from Ghent University. At the age of 24, he became a professor of physics and chemistry at the Bruges Institute of Higher Education in Belgium.

In 1889, just married the daughter of a university tutor, Baekeland received a travel scholarship to study chemical research in the United States. plastic Usage

At Columbia University, Charles · Professor Chandler encouragement, Baekeland stay in the United States, working for a New York photography supplier.

This led him to invent Velox photographic paper a few years later, which can be developed under the light rather than in the sun. In 1893, Baekeland resigned and founded the Nepera Chemical Company.

Under the impact of new products, photographic equipment supplier Eastman  Kodak much. In 1898, after two negotiations, Kodak purchased the patent for Velox photographic paper at a price of $750,000 (equivalent to $15 million in 2013).

However, Kodak quickly found that the formula was not working. Baekeland’s answer was: This is normal. The inventor will omit one or two steps in the patent file to prevent it from being infringed. Kodak was told that they bought a patent, but not all of it. Also paid $100,000, Kodak knew the secret was in a solution.

Excavating the first pot of gold, Baekeland bought a mansion overlooking the Hudson River in Yonkers, near New York, transforming a barn into a fully equipped private laboratory, and working with people to build a pilot plant in Brooklyn.  plastic Usage

The power industry that was just budding at the time contained a huge market for insulating materials. The first temptation that Becklan smelled was the soaring price of natural insulating shellac, which has been relying on the handicraft industry in South Asia for centuries.

After investigation, Baekeland took the search for alternatives to shellac as the first commercial target. At the time, chemists began to realize that many of the natural resins and fibers that can be used as coatings, adhesives, and fabrics are polymers, which are structurally repeating macromolecules, and are beginning to look for ingredients and methods that can synthesize polymers.

The difference is that celluloid comes from chemically treated cotton and other cellulose-containing plant materials, while phenolic plastics are the world’s first fully synthetic plastic. Baekeland named it “Bakelite” under his own name.

He was lucky British counterparts James · Sir Swinburne only a day later than he was filing a patent application, in English or Bakelite might be called “Swain Bo Laite.” On February 8, 1909, Baekeland unveiled the plastic at a meeting of the American Chemical Society’s New York Chapter.

plastic usage

The advent of counterfeit phenolic plastics has also enabled Baekeland to adopt a genuine label similar to today’s “Intel Inside” on its products. In 1926, the patent protection expired, and a large number of similar products flooded into the market. After negotiations, Baekeland merged with the opponent and owned a real phenolic empire. plastic Usage

As a scientist, Becker is known for his fame and fortune. He has more than 100 patents and countless honors. He also lives in the Science and Business Hall of Fame after his death.

He has both the commercial savvy of scientists and the sluggishness of too many scientists. In addition to movies and cars, his biggest hobby is wearing shirts and shorts that hang on the yacht’s “Ion”.

However, it is said that he only has a formal suit and always wears a pair of old sports shoes. In order to let him change his head, the wife of the artist picked a $125 British blue twill suit at the clothing store, prepaid the owner for $100, and asked him to display the suit in the window and hang a $25. s Mark. That night, Baekelan learned from his wife’s mouth that this was a good thing, and bought it the next day.

The way home encountered a neighbor, lawyer Samuel ·Untermeyer, Baekeland’s new clothes was immediately bought by the other party for $ 75, to be proud of his display cases savvy to his wife.

In 1939, when the retirement Baekeland, the son of George · Washington · Baekeland no intention of business, for $ 16.5 million (the equivalent of today’s $ 200 million) sold to Union Carbide. In 1945, one year after the death of Baekeland, the annual output of plastics in the United States exceeded 400,000 tons. plastic Usage

In 1979, it surpassed the representative of the industrial age – steel. In London Science Museum on the exhibition, Baekeland’s great-grandson Hugh · Karak armed with a urea-formaldehyde plastic phone a 1930s hand and show the phone with a biodegradable plastic made.

The application of

   plastics and the rapid development of the plastics industry have also brought about a series of social problems caused by waste plastics and waste plastics.

The application of plastic products has penetrated into every corner of society, from industrial production to clothing, food, and shelter, and plastic products are everywhere. People began to discover that plastic garbage has been quietly coming to us, seriously affecting our health and living environment.

For example, some agricultural land began to reduce production due to the influence of abandoned plastic film. The “white pollution” caused by waste plastics began to cause headaches.

The lunch box that does not rot and not decomposes cannot be effectively recycled, and the plastic garbage for daily use cannot be handled. The surge in plastic waste and the resulting social and environmental problems are in front of people and are places where people around the world live and live.

Plastics for the development of machinery

The huge market for plastics has contributed to the development of the plastics machinery industry. The plastic machinery industry has a wide range of applications including packaging, agriculture, construction, and automotive.

With the continuous development of the domestic petrochemical industry, China’s plastic machinery industry has gradually formed an independent industrial sector and has begun to take shape.

China’s plastic machinery industry is developing very fast, basically achieving leap-forward development, and the scale of the industry is constantly expanding.

Nowadays, the market demand for plastic products and consumption have undergone great changes, but plastic machinery is still the most concerned by major manufacturers and consumers.

At present, China’s plastic machinery industry’s independent innovation capability is relatively weak, and the high-end and personalized special varieties have few types of products, and the industry concentration is still relatively low.

However, the plastics processing industry has a good development prospect, which has greatly promoted the rapid development of China’s plastic machinery manufacturing industry. The development potential of China’s plastic machinery industry is full of stamina.

Industry development

After a long-term struggle and global openness, China’s plastics industry has formed a relatively complete industrial system and become a basic material industry that goes hand in hand with steel, cement, and wood. As a new type of material, its use has far surpassed the above three.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, China’s plastics industry has achieved remarkable achievements and achieved a historic leap. As one of the pillar industries of the light industry, the plastics industry has maintained a growth rate of more than 10% in recent years.

While maintaining a rapid development rate, economic benefits have also been improved. The total output value of enterprises above designated size in the plastic products industry ranked third among the 19 major industries in light industry, achieving a product sales rate of 97.8%, higher than the average level of the light industry. plastic Usage

From the perspective of synthetic resin, plastic machinery, and plastic products, it shows the strong development momentum of China’s plastics industry.

plastic usage

From January to December of 2007, China’s plastic products enterprises realized a total industrial output value of 801,815,657 thousand yuan, an increase of 27.06% over the same period of the previous year; from January to October 2008, China’s plastic products enterprises realized a total industrial output value of 788,006,448 thousand yuan, compared with The year-on-year growth was 22.16%.

China is a big country in the production of plastic raw materials, and it is also a huge consumer of plastic products. According to industry authoritative statistics, there are 13,699 enterprises with a certain scale of domestic plastic products as of 2013.

The output of plastic products nationwide was 61.86 million tons, an increase of 8.02% year-on-year.

Among them, the output of plastic film products was 10.893 million tons; the output of plastic daily necessities was 4.716 million tons; the output of plastic artificial leather and synthetic leather products was 3.47 million tons; the output of fiber reinforced plastic products was 2,598,600 tons; the output of foam plastic products was 1.465 million tons.

Agricultural application

Plastic consumption is advancing by leaps

China is a big agricultural country. Agricultural plastic products are indispensable for the development of modern agriculture. They are an irreplaceable technical measure to resist natural disasters and achieve stable crop production, high yield, high quality and high efficiency. They have been widely used in China’s agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery industries. Agriculture has become the second largest consumer of plastic products after the packaging industry.

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Package

First in plastic consumption

Plastic packaging materials mainly include plastic flexible packaging, woven bags, hollow containers, turnover boxes, etc., which is one of the largest fields in the application of plastic products.

In 2005, plastic packaging exceeded 7 million tons, accounting for about 1/3 of the total output of packaging materials, ranking first among various packaging materials. plastic Usage

Various kinds of mineral products, chemical products, synthetic resins, raw salt, grain, sugar, cotton, and wool have been widely used in plastic woven bags and heavy packaging bags; and beverages, detergents, cosmetics, chemical products, etc. are rapidly developing in China.

There is a great demand for plastic packaging materials such as composite membranes, packaging films, containers, and totes. Food and medicine are important materials for the national economy and the people’s livelihood, and the corresponding packaging demand is very strong.

The growth rate of China’s pharmaceutical packaging ranks first in the world’s eight major drug-producing countries.

Entering the 21st century, China’s accession to the WTO and global economic development has further promoted the development of China’s domestic demand and foreign trade and will drive BOPP (biaxially oriented polypropylene film) and plastic flexible packaging products into a new round of market demand growth.

According to industry estimates, in 2005 China’s BOPP film market reached 1 million tons, with an average annual growth rate of more than 20%. The development of the flexible packaging industry provides a good market opportunity for the development of the BOPP industry.

The introduction of technology

The general trend of China’s plastic products industry development is: agricultural plastics (including agricultural film, water-saving agricultural equipment, and geosynthetics ) still occupy an important position and will be further developed; packaging materials and plastic building materials will be the rapid growth of the plastics industry. plastic Usage

Main areas; high-tech, high value-added engineering plastic products, and composite materials, production, and application fields will continue to expand with the development of market economy; production of pipes, profiles, rolled products, biaxially stretched materials, films, etc. will Gradually develop to the economic scale; in order to protect the ozone layer, foam production will be carried out without fluorine technology; in order to reduce environmental pollution, the recycling of waste plastics and the development of degradable plastics will be strengthened ; for the development of plastic products and grades, plastics The development and production of machinery and molds will receive attention.

Processing technology

Molding definition

Plastic molding refers to the process of making a final plastic product from a polymer made by a synthetic resin manufacturer. Processing methods (often referred to as primary processing of plastics) include compression molding ( molding ), extrusion (extrusion), injection molding ( injection molding ), blow molding (hollow molding), calendaring, and the like.

Blister

After the sheet is heated to a certain temperature by a blister machine, a negative pressure is generated by a vacuum pump to adsorb the plastic sheet onto the surface of the mold and is cooled and shaped into a blister or a bulb of a different shape.

Compression molding

Compression molding is also called compression molding or press molding, and compression molding is mainly used for molding thermosetting plastics such as phenolic resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and unsaturated polyester resin.

Extrusion

Extrusion, also known as extrusion molding, is a method of extruding a heated resin through a die using an extruder ( extruder ) to extrude a desired shape of the article. Extrusion is sometimes also used in the formation of thermoset plastics and can be used in the formation of foams.

The advantage of extrusion is that it can extrude various shapes of products, and has high production efficiency and can be automated and continuously produced. The disadvantage is that thermosetting plastics cannot be widely processed by this method, and the product size is prone to deviation.

Injection molding

Injection molding is also called injection molding. Injection molding is a method in which a thermoplastic melt is injected into a mold under high pressure using an injection molding machine (or an injection machine ) to obtain a product by cooling and solidifying.

Injection molding can also be used to form thermoset plastics and foams. The advantages of injection molding are fast production speed, high efficiency, automatic operation, and the ability to form parts with complex shapes, especially for mass production.

plastic usage

The disadvantages are high equipment and mold costs, and it is difficult to clean the injection molding machine.

Blow molding

Blow molding is also called hollow blow molding or hollow molding. Blow molding is a method in which a hot resin prison closed in a mold is inflated into a hollow article by the pressure of compressed air, and the blow molding includes two methods of blown film and blown hollow article. Film production, various bottles, barrels, pots and children’s toys can be produced by blow molding. plastic Usage

Calendering

Calendering the resin and the various additives are contemplated by the process (kneading, filtering, etc.) through the calendar into a film or sheet opposite to the steering play two or more calendar rolls, and then peeled off from the calendar rolls, a molding method that is cooled and shaped. Calendering is a molding method mainly used for polyvinyl chloride resins and can manufacture films, sheets, sheets, artificial leathers, floor tiles and the like.

Foam molding

A foaming material (PVC, PE, PS, etc.) is added to a suitable foaming agent to cause the plastic to produce a microporous structure. Almost all thermosets and thermoplastics can be made into foam. According to the cell structure, it is divided into open-cell foam (which means that most of the pores are connected to each other) and closed-cell foam (most of the pores are separated from each other), which is mainly manufactured by chemical foaming and physical foaming. And mechanical foaming).

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