What makes Organic chemistry experiments in laboratory successful are proper guidance and processing by the teacher. Students should be able to understand the concepts behind their hands-on activities. These are enjoyable and highly educational experiences for students and will help them become better scientists.
There are many powerful chemical factories around the world with a wide range of products and, naturally, with their associated production wastes.
Control of the latter is of crucial importance as they may contain hazardous compounds that are environmentally hazardous, and their neutralization is a priority today.
However, before carrying out the clearance, it is necessary to find out the existence of different classes of compounds in waste, which is one of the classical chemistry departments, analytical chemistry.
Without going deep into many scientific details, let’s note, The school classroom training allows you to even find some classes of labs in the middle-class furnishings. Here are some of them:
1.Recommendation of Crops
Carbohydrates are widely used in nature. As we know, they have divided into three groups: saturated, unsaturated and aromatic carbohydrates. We also know that unsaturated hydrocarbons in which double or triple connections exist are involved in the connection and oxidation reactions at room temperature.
Saturated carbohydrates do not participate in reactions, and their oxidation proceeds under very severe conditions. As for aromatic hydrocarbons, similar reactions take place only in catalysts and at high temperatures. Here is the difference in the properties of hydrocarbons that can not easily be distinguished from others.
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1.1. Ethylene Bromination:
Add 1 ml of bromine in the test, add 4-5 ml of distilled water and a gas meter that is adapted to the gas pipe, to release the ethylene (C2H4) in the broth, until the mixture is blurred.
The testicular content is divided into two layers. water-top, and heavy, colorless oil layer, which is 1,2-dibromethane.
1.2. Oxidation of ethylene with potassium permanganate:
Put 10% 10 ml water solution in potassium permanganate into the test and let the latter leak slowly through the gas to release the ethylene. Very slowly, the solution is deafening.
Ethylene oxidation results in an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol.
1.3. Acetylene interactions with carbon dioxide and potassium permanganate
In one of the two test tubes, fill 5 ml of bromamour, and in the other, 1% solution of potassium permanganate. Skip acetylene (C2H2) in the testis. As a result of the interactions, the solubility in both test tubes is neglected.
The bromine reaction is in two stages. In case of a deficit of bromine, only the first stage proceeds, causing 1,2-cdibrom ethylene and 1,1,2,2-Quatro-bromine insufficient amount of bromine.
Acetylene oxidation produces oxalic acid, but with a higher concentration of potassium permanganate, deeper oxidation can be accomplished by disabling carbon dioxide gas.
Some more Organic chemistry experiments in Laboratory:
One of the most common and dangerous diseases in the world is diabetes, which in time leads to new diseases. One of the ways to fight diabetes is the restriction of carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates are successfully replaced by a variety of food products and cool water, with non-carbohydrate sweeteners such as acesulfame, aspartame, and so on.
However, these substitutes are not always used in the food industry. There are cases when two types of sweeteners are used together. In this case, given the fact that carbohydrate sweeteners (sucrose, sorbitol, xylitol) are multi-spirits, in some cases, they contain aldehyde group (glucose, lactose)
2.1. Glucose fruits and berries:
1-2 grape grains and squeeze the juice in the test, add the same volume of water. Add 20% solution per ml of alkaline and 30% solution of copper (II) sulfate to the obtained solution. To heat the test pot on the flame. At first, a yellow residue is formed, which changes after the reaction ends in red.
Instead of grape juice, it is possible to take any fruit or berry juice (pears, apples, strawberries, marijuana, etc.) and determine the presence of glucose in the same method.
2.2. Saccharose and Lactose Detection:
Transfer 1 ml of melted ice cream into the test, add 5-7 ml of distilled water, close the cork and shake several times. The resulting mixture is filtered, add 1 ml of 5-10% alkaline solution to the filtrate and 10% solution of 2-3 drops of copper (II) sulfate.
Carefully shake the testicle content. Sparkling lactose and a lacquer blue complex compound with a freshly sated copper hydroxide that is characteristic of multi-spirits. Organic Chemistry in Laboratory
Heat the solution to heat the spirits. The lactose in the form of aldehyde interacts with copper (II) hydroxide. The latter is recovered up to the yellow color copper (I) hydroxide, which decomposes to cause red color copper (I) oxide.
2.3. Sacharoz’s decision on chocolate and chewing gum:
To prepare the solution you need to prepare the following solutions:
- Chop the chocolate in the form of small beads and transfer into a 10 mm diameter test in 1 cm and add 3-5 ml of distilled water. Shake the testicle content several times and filter it.
- Transfer the crushed gum into the test and add 5 ml of 96% ethanol, close the cork, whip one minute and filter.
Determine the presence of sucrose in the above-mentioned solutions.
In the animal and flora world, proteins play an important role that can be divided into two groups. A group of proteins is composed of albumins that are dissolved and contained in egg white, whey, milk, and plant seeds. The other group consists of globulins, which are not dissolved but are soluble in solids in salt.
Globulins are contained in muscles, antibodies, enzymes, plant seeds, and so on. Such a widespread proliferation in nature has led to the need to develop methods for detecting these compounds, both on hardware and purely chemical means. Below are some of the most affordable chemical methods for protein determination.
3.1. Protein determination by diuretic reactions:
The weather is based on the coloration reaction that allows you to quickly detect the presence of protein in different samples. As an example, consider one of the options for determining protein in ice cream.
In a melted condition, transfer 1 ml of ice cream into the test, add 5-7 ml of distilled water, close the cork and shake. Add 1 ml of 5-10% sodium hydroxide solution and 10% solution of a few drops of copper sulfate to the mixture obtained. Organic Chemistry in Laboratory
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When the mixture is whipped, it is colored with a bright purple color. The biuractic reaction occurs between the newly sealed copper (II) hydroxide and peptide groups, due to the formation of a compound.
3.2. “Protein” egg-white decision:
Solve the egg “protein” in the water and transfer the test sample to the test. Carefully heat the solution, soluble it into several crystals of sodium chloride and add acetic acid solution. Protein is separated from the mixture in the form of white flakes.
3.3. Protein separation with strong acids:
Nitrogen and sulfuric acids are at the room temperature at the soluble protein. This fact enables the protein to quickly detect different types of proteins.
To make a decision, put the tester in a cauldron with nitrogen syrup and a puppet on the test chip to carefully add the protein solution so that the solvents do not interfere with the formation of two layers. On the borderline, the white ring of the separated protein is formed.
- L. Mileshina, Zanimatelnaya chemistry, researches. Tomsk University
2. GP Hombchenko, Platonov FP, Chortkov IN, Demonstration experiment on chemistry, M., Prosveschenie.
3. VN Aleksinskiy, Zanimatelnye, M., Prod.