A compound formed by substituting one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with a halogen atom is called a halogenated hydrocarbon. Organic Chemistry Compounds

Halogenated hydrocarbon:

According to the different halogen atoms substituted, it can be classified into a fluorinated hydrocarbon, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, a brominated hydrocarbon, an iodohydrocarbon or the like.

Halogenated hydrocarbon

According to the number of halogen atoms in the molecule, it can be classified into a monohalogenated hydrocarbon and a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon.

Depending on the type of hydrocarbon group, it can be classified into a saturated halogenated hydrocarbon, that is, a halogenated alkane, an unsaturated halogenated hydrocarbon, that is, a halogenated alkene and a halogenated alkyne, a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon, and the like, such as chlorine CH 3 -CHBr-CH 2 Br. Organic Chemistry Compounds

The halogenated hydrocarbon can undergo a hydrolysis reaction, an elimination reaction, etc., and a part of the halogenated hydrocarbon can react with magnesium (see Grignard reagent).

Alcohol: A product in which one or several hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule are substituted by a hydroxyl group is called alcohol (a product in which a hydrogen atom on a benzene ring is substituted by a hydroxyl group is a phenol).

Depending on the number of hydroxyl groups in the alcohol molecule, it can be classified into monohydric alcohols, glycols, triols, etc., and can be classified into saturated alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, and aromatic alcohols depending on the hydrocarbon group in the alcohol molecule.

chemistry compounds

Due to the position of the carbon atom to which the hydroxyl group is attached, it can be further classified into tertiary alcohol such as (CH 3) 3 COH. Alcohols are generally neutral, lower alcohols are readily soluble in water, and polyols have a sweet taste of o-hydroxy groups.

Organic Chemistry Compounds Containing

The chemical reactions of alcohols mainly include oxidation reaction, esterification reaction, a dehydration reaction, reaction with hydrohalic acid, and reaction with active metals.

The phthalic acid can react with divalent copper ions.

Aromatic alcohol: a substance in which a hydrogen atom on a side bond of a benzene ring in an aromatic hydrocarbon molecule is substituted with a hydroxyl group.

Such as benzyl alcohol (also known as benzyl alcohol).

Phenol: A compound in which a hydrogen atom on a benzene ring in an aromatic hydrocarbon molecule is substituted with a hydroxyl group is called a phenol.

According to the number of hydroxyl groups contained in the phenol molecule, it can be divided into monohydric phenol, dihydric phenol, and polyhydric phenol, etc., such as a solution which is discolored. Phenol has a weak acidity and can react with a base to form a phenolate.

The benzene ring in the phenol molecule is susceptible to substitution reactions such as halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, etc.by hydroxyl groups, but it is difficult to eliminate.

Ether: A compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are linked by one oxygen atom is called ether. It can be represented by the general formula RO-R’. If R is the same as R’, it is called simple either.

organic chemistry compounds

Such as methyl ether CH 3 -O-CH 3, diethyl ether C 2 H 5 -OC 2 H 5, etc.; if R is different from R’, it is called mixed ether, such as methyl ether CH 3 -OC 2 H 5.

Aldehyde: A compound in which at least one end of a carbonyl group is directly attached to a hydrogen. According to the number of aldehyde groups in the aldehyde molecule, it can be divided into a monoaldehyde, a dialdehyde, etc.; depending on the hydrocarbon group in the molecule, it can be obtained by oxidation of the corresponding primary alcohol (but formaldehyde is obtained by oxidation of CH3OH). Organic Chemistry Compounds

Organic Compounds Chemistry Examples:

Hydrogen attached to the carbonyl group in the aldehyde may undergo an addition reaction, which is easily oxidized to a corresponding carboxylic acid by a weaker oxidizing agent such as a Filyin reagent or a Duron reagent (ie, a silver ammonia solution).

Important aldehydes are formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and the like.

Aromatic aldehydes: partial sub aldehyde groups directly connected to the benzene ring formed by the aldehyde, aromatic aldehyde is referred to. Such as benzaldehyde.

A carboxylic acid: a compound in which a hydrocarbon group or a hydrogen atom is bonded to a carboxyl group is called a carboxylic acid, and can be classified into a monobasic acid, a dibasic acid, a polybasic acid or the like depending on the number of carboxyl groups in the carboxylic acid molecule.

A monobasic acid such as acetic acid saturated acids such as propionic acid CH 3 CH 2 COOH, an unsaturated acid such as acrylic acid CH 2 =CH-COOH or the like.

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Carboxylic acids can also be classified into fatty acids, alicyclic acids, and aromatic acids. Among the fatty acids, saturated, such as C 17 H 35COOH, and the like.

Carboxylic acid derivative:

A compound formed by substituting a hydroxyl group in a carboxyl group of a carboxylic acid molecule with another atom or a group of atoms is called a carboxylic acid derivative. Such as acid halides, amides, acid anhydrides, and the like.

  1. Acid halide: A compound formed by substituting a hydroxyl group at a carboxyl group in a carboxylic acid molecule with a halogen atom.
  2. Amide: a compound in which a hydroxyl group on a carboxyl group of a carboxylic acid molecule is substituted with an amino group -NH2 or a hydrocarbon amino group (-NHR or -NR2); it can also be regarded as a hydrogen atom on a nitrogen atom in an ammonia or amine molecule. A compound obtained by substituting an acyl group.
  3. Anhydride: A compound formed by the loss of water between two molecules of a monocarboxylic acid molecule or the loss of water in a dicarboxylic acid molecule, referred to as an acid anhydride. For example, two acetic acid molecules lose one water molecule to form acetic anhydride (CH3COOOCCH3)

An ester: a compound formed by substituting a hydroxyl group at a carboxyl group in a carboxylic acid molecule with an alkoxy group -O-R’. Organic Chemistry Compounds

Antibiotic

Grease: It is a general term for higher fatty acid glycerides. A liquid that is liquid at room temperature is called fat in a solid state. If R, R’, and R” are the same, it is called a monoglyceride; if R, R’, and R” are different, it is called a mixed glyceride. Natural oils are mostly mixed glycerides.

The nitro compound: a compound formed by substituting a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon molecule with a nitro-NO 2 may be represented by the formula R-NO 2, and R may be an alkyl group or a benzene ring. Such as nitroethane CH 3 CH 2NO 2.

Amine: An organic compound formed by substituting a hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a hydrocarbon group.

Organic Chemistry Types of Compounds:

According to the structure of the hydrocarbon group, it can be divided into fatty amines such as methylamine CH 3 NH 2, dimethylamine CH 3 -NH-CH 3 and aromatic amines such as aniline C 6 H 5 -NH 2, and diphenylamine (C 6 H 5) 2 NH and so on.

It can also be classified into a monoamine, a diamine, and a polyamine according to the number of amino groups.

Monoamines such as ethylamine CH 3 CH 2 NH 2, diamines such as ethylenediamine H 2 N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2, polyamines such as hexamethylenetetramine(C6H2) 6N4.

Most of the amines are weakly basic and can react with acids to form salts. Aniline is an important substance in amines and is a raw material for synthetic dyes and synthetic drugs.

Nitrile: A compound in which a hydrocarbon group is bonded to a cyano group (-CN). The formula is R-CN, such as acetonitrile CH 3 CN. Organic Chemistry Compounds

Diazo compounds:

Most are organic compounds of the formula RN 2 -X, and the molecule contains a diazo compound, of which the aromatic diazonium salt is most important.

The chemical activity available is an intermediate for the preparation of azo dyes.

Azo compound: an organic compound having an azo group (-N=N-) in its molecule. It is represented by the general formula RN = N-R’, wherein R is a hydrocarbon group, and the azo compound has a color, and some can be used as a dye. Can also be used as a pigment.

Sulfonic acid: a compound formed by a substituting a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon molecule with a sulfonic acid group -SO 3 H, which can be represented by RSO 3 H.

The preparation of the aliphatic sulfonic acid is usually carried out by an indirect method, and the aromatic sulfonic acid can be directly obtained by a sulfonation reaction.

Sulfonic acid is a strong acid and easily soluble in water. Aromatic sulfonic acid is an important intermediate for synthetic dyes and synthetic drugs.

chemical compound

Amino acid:

A compound formed by substituting a hydrogen atom on a hydrocarbon group in a carboxylic acid molecule with an amino group.

The amino group substitution positions can be divided into α- amino acids, [beta] acids, [gamma] amino acids.

The amino group in the α-amino acid is on a carbon atom adjacent to the hydroxyl group. The α-amino acid is the basic unit of the constituent protein. Organic Chemistry Compounds

The protein can be hydrolyzed to obtain more than twenty kinds of α-amino acids, such as glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, etc., and most of them are L-type α-amino acids.

Among the amino acids required by the human body, proteins such as lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, and threonine are called “essential amino acids “.

Such as glycine, serine, alanine, and the like. Glutamate or the like can be obtained by converting other organic substances into the human body, and is called “non-essential amino acid “.

Peptide: a compound formed by condensation of an amino group in one molecule of amino acid with a carboxyl group in another molecule of amino acid to lose water molecules. A peptide formed by two amino acid molecules is called a dipeptide.

Polypeptide: The condensation of water molecules by a plurality of α-amino acid molecules to form an organic substance containing a plurality of peptide bonds.

Protein: Also known as generally the molecular weight is greater than 10,000. Protein is a major constituent of living organisms and the basis of life activities.

The composition, arrangement order, and stereostructure of the peptide chains in various proteins are different.

Organic Chemistry Compounds Structure:

The amino acid sequence and stereostructure of various proteins have been clarified.

Proteins can be divided into fibrillary proteins and globular proteins by molecular shape. Fibrin such as silk, hair, hair, skin, horn, hoof, etc., globulin such as enzymes, protein hormones and the like. Organic Chemistry Compounds

According to the solubility, it can be divided into albumin, globulin, gliadin and insoluble hard protein. According to the composition, it can be divided into simple protein and complex protein.

The simple protein is composed of amino acids. The complex protein is composed of simple protein and other substances.

For example, protein and nucleic acid combine to form nucleic acid protein, and protein and sugar combine to form glycoprotein and protein. Combines with heme to produce hemoglobin and the like.

Sugar:

Also known as carbohydrates. Multi- hydroxy aldehydes and hydroxy ketones or after hydrolysis can generate a generic term polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone compound.

Sugar can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and the like. Generally, the ratio of the number of hydrogen atoms to the number of oxygen atoms in the saccharide is 2:1, but formaldehyde such as CH 2 O is not a saccharide; and rhamnose: C6H12O5 is a saccharide.

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Monosaccharide: The simplest sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed, such as glucose (aldose).

Oligosaccharides: A sugar that produces 2 to 10 molecular monosaccharides upon hydrolysis is called an oligosaccharide. Among them, the disaccharide is the most important, such as sucrose, maltose, lactose and the like. Organic Chemistry Compounds

Polysaccharide: also known as polysaccharides. A sugar capable of producing more than 10 molecules of a monosaccharide when hydrolyzed by a molecular polysaccharide is called a polysaccharide.

such as starch and cellulose, and can be represented by the formula (C6H10O5)n. n can be hundreds to thousands.

Polymer compound:

Also known as “macromolecule compound” or “polymer”. The molecular weight can be as high as several thousand or even millions.

It can be divided into two major categories: natural polymer compounds and synthetic polymer compounds.

Natural polymer compounds such as proteins, nucleic acids, starch, cellulose, natural rubber, and the like. Synthetic polymer compounds such as synthetic rubber, synthetic resins, synthetic fibers, plastics, and the like.

According to the structure, it can be divided into a chain-shaped linear polymer compound (such as rubber, fiber, and thermoplastic) and a mesh-shaped bulk polymer compound (such as phenolic plastic, vulcanized rubber). Organic Chemistry Compounds

The synthetic polymer compound can be further classified into an addition polymer and a polycondensate depending on the reaction at the time of its synthesis.

The addition of polymer is a polymer compound formed by addition polymerization. Such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and the like.

The polycondensate is a polymer compound produced by a polycondensation reaction. Such as phenolic plastic, nylon 66 and so on.

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Category Isomerism

There are the following heterogeneous relationships between organisms:

  1. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomers of CnH2n (n ≥ 3): olefins and cycloalkanes;
  2. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomers of CnH2n-2 (n ≥ 4): alkynes and diolefins;
  3. Molecules comply CnH2n + 2O (n≥3) isomer categories: saturated monohydric alcohols and saturated ethers;
  4. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomer of CnH2nO (n≥3): saturated monoaldehyde and saturated monoketone;
  5. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomer of CnH2nO2 (n≥2): a saturated monocarboxylic acid and a saturated monoester;
  6. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomer of CnH2n-6O (n≥7): homologue of phenol, aromatic alcohol, and aromatic ether;

For example, n=7, there are five kinds: o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol; benzyl alcohol; anisole.

  1. The molecular composition conforms to the class isomer of CnH2n+1O2N (n≥2): amino acid and nitro compound