Nicotine is a presence in the Solanaceae plant (Solanum) alkaloids, tobacco is an important component of, or on behalf of N cholinergic receptor agonists of the receptor and of the N1 and N2 the central nervous system has a role and has no clinical application value.
Nicotine can be addictive or dependent, and repeated use of nicotine also increases heart speed and raises blood pressure and reduces appetite. Large doses of nicotine can cause vomiting and nausea, and in severe cases, people die. Nicotine is usually found in tobacco.
English name: Nicotine
Chemical formula: C10H14N2
Molecular weight: 162.23
Melting point: -79 ° C
Boiling point: 247 ° C
Water soluble: Soluble in water and ethanol
Chemical Name: 1-methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidine
Simple structure: C5NH4-C4H7NCH3
Natural temperature: 240 ° C
Historical Origin of Nicotine
Nicotine (Nicotine) name from the scientific name of this tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum and tobacco is the scientific name of a Frenchman in Portugal Jean Nicot de Villemain named.
In 1560, tobacco seeds were sent back to Paris from Brazil and promoted for medical use. In 1828, German chemists Posselt and Reimann first separated nicotine from tobacco. In 1843, Melsens proposed the chemical formula of nicotine.
In 1893, Adolf Pinner discovered the structure of nicotine. In 1904, A. Pictet and Crepieux successfully used synthetic methods to obtain nicotine.
Physical and chemical properties
Nicotine (nicotine), it is an oily liquid substance that is unpleasant, bitter, colorless and transparent.
Molecular formula C10H14N2, soluble in water, ethanol, chloroform, ether, oil, nicotine can penetrate into the skin. The free-state nicotine ignition point is lower than the boiling point.
When the air is low in vapor pressure, the gas will burn at 308K (35 °C; 95 °F). For this reason, most of the nicotine is produced by igniting the smoking article, but the amount of inhalation is also sufficient to produce the desired effect.
Nicotine is optically active and has two optical isomers. The viscosity was 2.7 mPa·s at 25°C, 1.6 mPa·s at 50°C, 37.5 dynes/cm at 25.5°C, and 37.0 dynes/cm at 36.0°C.
Nicotine, which has been closely linked to “death” and “cancer” for nearly a hundred years, has received a lot of new attention, and many experts have just named it. It is believed that nicotine in cigarettes does not have much harm. The real carcinogens are tar and carbon monoxide.
Zhang Yifang, vice president of the China Association of Smoking and Health, said: “Although the scientific and technological community does not have a definitive statement about whether nicotine can cause cancer, nicotine can make people addicted to tobacco is correct, smoking will affect people’s health. It’s true.”
Moreover, he also said that in fact, it is not important whether the nicotine in the cigarette is carcinogenic or the tar, carbon monoxide and other harmful substances in the cigarette cause cancer.
When the smoker smokes, there is no way to poison the nicotine and tar, carbon monoxide and so on. The substance is separated, and the real addictive is this nicotine. Who will specifically smoke for tar and carbon monoxide?
Therefore, even if nicotine has no carcinogenic effect, it is at least an accomplice of carcinogens such as tar and carbon monoxide. People are absolutely unable to get rid of cancer because they have cancer.
Nicotine can stimulate peripheral vasoconstriction, rapid heartbeat, blood pressure rise and rapid breathing, and promote cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and stroke.
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Nicotine is not only found in tobacco leaves, but also in the fruits of various Solanaceae plants. For example, tomatoes, scorpions and other plants contain nicotine, which is recognized as a healthy food for the human body.
Because of this, the World Health Organization promoted “nicotine replacement therapy” globally in the 1990s to replace smoking, replacing nicotine that was previously obtained from cigarettes, helping people to physically and psychologically overcome their dependence on cigarettes. The chances of success in quitting smoking have more than doubled.
Nicotine is a highly toxic substance. The oral LD50 of oral rat nicotine is 50 mg/kg, and the nicotine LD50 of the mouse is 3.3 mg/kg.
The nicotine contained in a cigarette can poison a mouse, and nicotine in 20 cigarettes can poison a cow. If a person consumes a large amount of nicotine (50 to 70 mg, equivalent to the nicotine content of 40 to 60 cigarettes), it is likely to cause death.
If a cigar or three cigarettes of nicotine are injected into a person’s vein for 3 to 5 minutes, they can die. Tobacco is not only harmful to higher animals, but also harmful to lower animals, and is, therefore, a major component of agricultural pesticides.
Therefore, “the snake does not bite the smoker.” Because they smell the bitter smell of smoking, they avoid flying away. Similarly, passive smokers also feel uncomfortable with the smell of smoke.
People who have died of acute poisoning caused by smoking have already occurred in China. If they smoke more, they will drunk like drunkenness and die of yellow water and die. For this reason, the Chong Zhen Emperor ordered a non-smoking.
There are also reports abroad: a young man in the Soviet Union smoked for the first time and died after smoking a cigar. A 40-year-old healthy man who has been smoking for a long time in the UK is engaged in a very important job.
He smoked 14 cigars and 40 cigarettes overnight. He felt uncomfortable in the morning and died after being rescued by a doctor. France holds a smoking contest, the winner in the club he sucked in a 60 Zhi cigarettes after, not enough time to accept the award that is dead, the other dying because of all those who participate in the competition, to the hospital.
The smoke produced by burning cigarettes contains at least 2,000 kinds of harmful components, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzopyrene, benzopyrene, nitrosamine, hydrazine 210, cadmium, arsenic, and β-naphthylamine. The carcinogens in cigarette smoke include cyanide, o-cresol, phenol, and the like.
When smoking, most of the cigarette smoke is inhaled into the lungs, and a small portion enters the digestive tract with saliva.
Some of the harmful substances in the smoke stay in the lungs, and some enter the blood circulation and flow to the whole body. Under the synergistic action of carcinogens and carcinogens, normal cells can be damaged and cancer can form.
Harmful components in cigarette smoke include alkaloids such as carbon monoxide and nicotine, amines, nitriles, alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkenes, carbonyl compounds, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, and heavy metal elements.
They have a variety of biological effects, including:
- Inflammatory stimuli to the respiratory mucosa: such as aldehydes, nitrogen oxides, and olefins.
- Toxic effects on cells: such as nitriles, amines, heavy metals.
- Adding an additive effect: alkaloids such as nicotine.
- It has carcinogenic effects on the human body: such as benzopyrene of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium, dimethylnitrosamine, β-naphthylamine and the like.
- It has a cancer-promoting effect on the human body: such as phenolic compounds.
- Red blood cells lose oxygen capacity: such as carbon monoxide.
To evaluate the harmful substances in tobacco, usually use “smoke tar and carbon monoxide”, requirements
The smoke tar produced by each cigarette is below 15 mg, and the smoke on the market is measured more than several times.
According to the smoking of 20 cigarettes a day, one-quarter of them inhaled in the body, the amount of smoke tar smoked by the smoker is about 120-200 mg per day. The combined action of harmful substances in tobacco tar is a major threat to human cancer.
A variety of carcinogens that make up tar, when the amount of inhalation reaches a certain level
Cancer initiators, cancer-promoting agents, and synergistic carcinogens can accelerate carcinogenesis.
According to a study published by Professor Liu Boqi of the Institute of Oncology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, in May 1999, 600,000 people died in tobacco in China in 1990, and 800,000 in 2000. According to current smoking conditions, to the middle of the 21st century. About 3 million people will die from tobacco.
In the 1990s, about a quarter of the total number of deaths per year in Beijing died from cerebrovascular disease, and another 1/4 died of cancer.
In cancer, lung cancer deaths account for a quarter of total cancer deaths. The cause of lung cancer in China is that between 70% and 80% of men are attributed to smoking, while about 30% of women are attributed to smoking and passive smoking.
Among smokers, laryngeal cancer, lip cancer, tongue cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer occur several times more frequently than non-smokers. If you smoke an average of 20 cigarettes a day, smokers who have been smoked for 20 years are 20 times more likely to develop lung cancer than non-smokers.
Those who started to smoke when they were younger than 20 years old were 28 times more likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers. According to research by American scientists, smokers have a shorter life expectancy of about 20 years than non-smokers.
According to a survey conducted by the China Cancer Research Office, in the early 1990s, the mortality rate of lung cancer in China increased from 7.09/100,000 in the 1970s to 17.54/100,000 in the 1990s, which is more than half that of the mid-1970s.
The mortality rate of lung cancer in Jiangsu Province has increased by 3.67 times in the past 20 years. In 74 cities surveyed, lung cancer deaths accounted for the first place in all cancer deaths. In 1975, Chinese male lung cancer died about 30,000.
If the smoking rate in China does not fall, male lung cancer will die by 900,000 per year by 2025, equivalent to 30 times that of the 1970s.
In the United Kingdom, for example, smoking has killed 1/3 of middle-aged people because many people have smoked for many years.
Therefore, discouraging smoking and opposing smoking are important measures to prevent cancer, obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, coronary heart disease, and other diseases.
In November 1998, the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Regional Office convened the fourth “Tobacco or Health Work Conference”.
The meeting pointed out that the number of deaths due to smoking in the Western Pacific countries is almost equal to alcoholism, homicide, suicide, and drug abuse. The sum of traffic accidents, industrial accidents and AIDS deaths.
Smoking can damage various tissues and organs of the human body, causing cancer, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebral stroke, peptic ulcer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other diseases.
The World Health Organization estimates that 8,000 people die from smoking every day in the world. Professor Richard Peto of the University of Oxford Cancer Institute pointed out: “One-third of people who smoke regularly will die of this hobby, and half of them can only live to middle age.”
In developed countries, smoking is associated with 85% of lung cancer deaths, 75% of total bronchitis and emphysema deaths, and 25% of total heart disease deaths.
According to statistics, one in every four smokers in the UK died of lung cancer, and one in three middle-aged deaths died of lung cancer and heart disease caused by smoking. Studies have shown that one-third of all cancer patients are related to smoking.
The level of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds began to decline from the lung tissue after the third month of smoking cessation and reached the level of non-smokers after 5 years of smoking cessation.
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Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) is a non-tobacco form, a small dose of safe nicotine preparation, which replaces nicotine in tobacco. It provides nicotine, which is less than smoking but is sufficient to reduce the symptoms of addiction.
After the time, the intake of nicotine in the quitters is gradually reduced to a minimum, thereby overcoming the habit of smoking and achieving the goal of successful smoking cessation.
In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) attached great importance to the research and development and clinical application of “nicotine replacement therapy”, and recommended “nicotine replacement therapy” to quit smoking in countries around the world, and recommended to be included in the national health insurance plan.
On World No Tobacco Day 1999, Dr. Brundtland, former Director-General of the World Health Organization, fully affirmed nicotine replacement therapy: “Now we know that there are successful and effective treatments. Nicotine replacement drugs such as nicotine gum Agents, nicotine patches, nicotine nasal sprays and nicotine inhalers, and non-nicotine drug bupropion hydrochloride can double the success rate of smoking cessation.”
It mainly includes the following measures: psychological counseling, purchase of smoking cessation drugs (nicotine replacement products) group therapy. Reimbursement of 80% of the cost of smoking cessation medications (including nicotine replacement products) at the headquarters or regional office with a physician’s prescription.
The World Health Organization’s Director-General and Senior Adviser, Professor Judith McDonsey, reprinted the 2006 Tobacco Layout of the “Tobacco Quit” chapter, which has been used in more than 60 countries around the world to use nicotine replacement therapy.
Nicotine replacement therapy began in 1978 and has long been recognized and recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Department of Health.
China lacks in-depth research on nicotine replacement therapy and its application is not widespread.
Some departments and consumers do not consider nicotine addiction to be a disease, and they still question the safety and effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy, resulting in Chinese nicotine replacement therapy and the research and development of its products is relatively slow.
Generally, if a person does not touch nicotine for three months, he or she can achieve physical withdrawal, but it may take longer for psychological withdrawal.
1) After smoking, drink plenty of boiled water to promote nicotine excretion. In the future, warn yourself not to smoke any more.
2) Taking vitamins C and E can effectively inhibit the smoking desire of nicotine dependent patients, and even help them gradually quit smoking.
3) When smoking is coming, you should do deep breathing activities immediately, or chew sugar-free chewing gum, and avoid using snacks instead of cigarettes. Otherwise, it will cause blood sugar to rise and your body to be overweight.
In June 2012, American scientists developed a new nicotine vaccine that can help smokers quit smoking, while also preventing non-smokers from contracting such bad habits. This injection of the vaccine allows the recipient to produce an immune response throughout life.