British David used magnesium to reduce magnesium oxide in 1808 to produce Magnesium metal. It is a silver-white light alkaline earth metal, which is chemically active and can react with acid to form hydrogen, which has certain ductility and heat dissipation. It is widely distributed in nature and is one of the essential elements of the human body.
1 Found a brief History
2 Physical Properties
3 Chemical Properties
4 Magnesium Isotope
5 Magnesium Benefits
6 Preparation Method
Discover a brief History
The first to confirm that magnesium is an element is Joseph Black, in Edinburgh in 1755. He identified the bitter soil (MgO) in lime (calcium oxide, CaO), which are each made by heating similar to carbonate rock, magnesite, and limestone. Another type of magnesium ore is called sepiolite, which was reported by Thomas Henry in 1799. He said that this ore is used more in Turkey for making pipes.
Impure magnesium metal was first produced by Anton Rupprecht in 1792, heating a mixture of bitter and charcoal. Pure but very small amount of magnesium metal was produced in 1808 by Humphry Davy electrolytic magnesium oxide.
However, it was the French scientist Antoine-Alexandre-Brutus Bussy who used magnesium chloride and potassium to react to produce a considerable amount of magnesium metal in 1831, after which he began to study its properties.
Many centuries ago, the ancient Romans believed that “magnesia” (a white magnesium salt produced in the Magnesia region of Greece, hence the name magnesium) can treat a variety of diseases. Until 1808, British chemist David used electrolytic hard bitter (magnesium) to separate elemental magnesium.
In the early 1930s, E.V. McCollum and his colleagues used mice and dogs as experimental animals for the first time to systematically observe the reaction of magnesium deficiency. In 1934, a clinical report on the occurrence of magnesium deficiency on the basis of different diseases was first published. It is confirmed that magnesium is an essential element of the human body.
Magnesium is one of the ten most widely distributed elements in nature but since it is not easy to reduce from the compound to the elemental state, it has not been discovered.
For a long time, chemists used magnesium oxides obtained from the calcination of magnesium carbonate-containing magnesite as an unremovable substance. It was listed in the element table published by Lavoisier in 1789. In 1808, after successfully producing calcium, David succeeded in producing magnesium metal using the same method. From then on, magnesium was identified as an element and was named magnesium, and the element symbol was Mg.
It comes from the Greek city of Magnesia because it produces magnesium oxide near the city, called magnesia alba, white magnesium oxide, the element symbol Mg. Magnesium has an atomic order of 12 and an atomic weight of 24.3. It is a typical divalent metal and has the common characteristics of metals. Since the oxide property of magnesium is between “alkaline” and “soil” as calcium, it is called an alkaline earth metal element.
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Appearance and traits: silvery white with a metallic luster.
Solubility: insoluble in water, lye, soluble in acid.
It has relatively strong reducibility and can react with boiling water to release hydrogen. It can produce dazzling white light when burned.
It does not interact with fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and chromic acid, and is not affected by caustic alkali, but it is easily soluble in organic. And inorganic acids, It can be directly combined with nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens, organic chemicals including hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, amines, fats and most oils with magnesium only slightly or not at all.
However, the reaction with halogenated hydrocarbons under anhydrous conditions is more severe (Grebs-forming reagent). it can react with carbon dioxide, so magnesium burning cannot be extinguished with a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.
It reacts with N2 and O2, so when it burns in the air, it burns violently and emits a dazzling white light, which releases heat to form a white solid. The change in vinegar is that bubbles pop out quickly, floating on the surface of the vinegar and gradually disappearing.
Some fireworks and lighting bombs contain magnesium powder, which is the use of magnesium in the air to produce a dazzling white light. The valence of magnesium in a chemical reaction is usually +2.
- Reaction with a non-metal element:
2Mg+O2 == Ignition== 2MgO
3Mg+N2 == Ignition == Mg3N2
Mg+Cl2 == Ignition == MgCl2
- Reaction with water:
Mg+2H2O (hot water) == Mg(OH)2+H2↑
- Reaction with acid:
Mg+2HCl = MgCl2+H2↑
Mg+H2SO4 = MgSO4+H2↑
- Reaction with oxide:
2Mg+CO2 = Ignition = 2MgO+C
- The reaction of magnesium with ammonium chloride: The reaction of magnesium with ammonium chloride, the essence of which is the reaction of magnesium with acid. The ammonium ion is hydrolyzed in the ammonium chloride solution, and the solution is acidic. When magnesium powder is added, the magnesium reacts with the hydrogen ions in the solution to release hydrogen while releasing a large amount of heat. Ammonia water, a hydrolyzate of ammonium ions, decomposes when heated. Therefore, two gases can be obtained by the reaction. The total reaction equation:
Mg + 2NH4Cl === MgCl2+ 2NH3↑ + H2↑
- Magnesium and bicarbonate reaction
- The reaction of magnesium with alkali metal hydroxide
It is generally believed that magnesium does not react with alkali metal hydroxides such as KOH because it is an alkali metal rather than an amphoteric metal. However, at high temperatures, it can participate in redox reactions, such as reaction with NaOH, to produce MgO, Na, and H2.
It has been found that there are 22 isotopes of magnesium, including magnesium19 to magnesium40, of which only magnesium24, magnesium25, and magnesium26 are naturally occurring and stable, and other magnesium isotopes are radioactive.
It is commonly used as a reducing agent to replace metals such as titanium, zirconium, uranium, and thorium. Mainly used in the manufacture of light metal alloys, ductile iron, scientific instruments, and Grignard reagents. Can also be used to make fireworks, flash powder, magnesium salt, aspirator, lighting bombs, etc. Its structural characteristics are similar to those of aluminum, and it has various uses for light metals. It can be used as an alloy material for aircraft and missiles.
However, it is flammable in gasoline ignition, which limits its application.
Medical use: treatment of magnesium deficiency and phlegm.
Sports use: Inject magnesium compounds a few hours before intense exercise or inject after intense exercise to compensate for the loss of magnesium. Gymnasts often apply basic magnesium carbonate to increase friction. Medical: If the magnesium salt is injected too fast, it can cause fever and general malaise.
Metal magnesium can react with most non-metals and acids; it can directly synthesize magnesium hydride with hydrogen under high pressure; magnesium can react with halogenated hydrocarbons to synthesize Grignard reagent, which is widely used in organic synthesis.
It has a clear tendency to form coordination compounds.
It is an important material in the aerospace industry. Magnesium alloys are used in the manufacture of aircraft fuselages, engine parts, etc, magnesium is also used in the manufacture of photographic and optical instruments; magnesium and its alloys are also widely used in non-structural applications, magnesium is a strong reduction agent, is also used titanium, zirconium, beryllium , uranium production hafnium and the like.
Pure magnesium has a low strength, but magnesium alloy is a good lightweight structural material widely used in industrial sectors such as space technology, aerospace, automotive and instrumentation.
A supersonic aircraft has about 5% of magnesium alloy components, and a missile generally consumes 100 to 200 kilograms of magnesium alloy. Magnesium is the main component of other alloys (especially aluminum alloys). It can be heat-treated with aluminum alloys in combination with other elements, magnesium is used as a spheroidizing agent for ductile iron, and some metals (such as titanium and zirconium) are produced with magnesium.
Reducing agent; magnesium is an indispensable component of incendiary bombs and flares, magnesium powder is a necessary raw material for holiday fireworks, it is a structural material or packaging material in the nuclear industry; magnesium fertilizer can promote the absorption and utilization of phosphorus by plants, and magnesium-deficient plants Then the growth tends to stagnate. Magnesium is a basic material that plays an important role in people’s lives.
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Plant use: Magnesium is mainly found in young organs and tissues, and plants are concentrated in seeds when they mature. Magnesium ions can activate various phosphomutases and phosphokinases during photosynthesis and respiration. Similarly, magnesium can also activate the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Magnesium is one of the synthetic components of chlorophyll.
In the absence of magnesium, chlorophyll cannot be synthesized, the veins are still green and the veins turn yellow, sometimes reddish-purple. If magnesium deficiency is severe, brown spot necrosis is formed. (Pan Ruichi Plant Physiology, Advanced Press) exists in plants in the form of ionic or organic binding. Magnesium is a component of chlorophyll and an activator of many enzymes and is the main corresponding ion of hydrogen ions in photophosphorylation.
it is the main cation in human cells, concentrated in mitochondria, second only to potassium and phosphorus, and second only to sodium and calcium in extracellular fluid. It is an essential substance for basic biochemical reactions of various cells in the body.
The normal adult body has a total magnesium content of about 25 g, of which 60% to 65% is present in bones and teeth, and 27% is distributed in soft tissues. it is mainly distributed in cells, and the extracellular fluid contains no more than 1% magnesium.
It is a necessary substance in the metabolism of calcium, vitamin C, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, etc., and plays an important role in the normal functioning of nerve muscles and blood sugar conversion.
It is an essential element involved in the normal life activities and metabolic processes of living organisms. It affects a variety of biological functions of cells, affects the transport of potassium and calcium ions, regulates the transmission of signals, participates in energy metabolism, synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, and can complex negatively charged groups, especially phosphates in nucleotides.
The group plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of the substance; catalyzing the activation and inhibition of enzymes and regulating the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation, magnesium is also involved in maintaining the stability of the genome and is also involved in oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.
Absorption and metabolism of magnesium: The total magnesium content of the adult body is about 25g, of which 60% to 65% is present in bone and teeth, and 27% is distributed in soft tissue. The ingredients that promote magnesium absorption in the diet are mainly amino acids, lactose, etc.; the main components that inhibit magnesium absorption are excessive phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytic acid, and dietary fiber. The amount of magnesium ingested by adults from the diet is secreted from the bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal fluid to the intestines, 60% to 70% of which is excreted in the feces and partly lost in sweat and exfoliated skin cells.
Magnesium ion is a kind of positive ion in the living organism, and its amount is fourth only to calcium, sodium, and potassium in the whole; the content of magnesium ion in the cell is second only to potassium ion. Two. Whole seeds, unmilled grains, green leafy vegetables, beans, and nuts are the most abundant sources of dietary magnesium; low levels of magnesium in fish, meat, milk, and fruit, processed foods during processing Almost all of the loss of magnesium. Creatine hexaphosphate, crude fiber, ethanol, excess phosphate, and calcium ions impair the absorption of magnesium, probably because the concentration of magnesium in the lumen is reduced.
Magnesium belongs to human nutrients, one of the mineral elements, and belongs to the class of minerals. 60-65% of the magnesium in the human body is present in bones and teeth, and 27% is present in soft tissues. The intracellular magnesium ions account for only 1%, mostly in the form of active form Mg2+ -ATP.
- As an activator of enzymes, it participates in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, protein synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, etc. require magnesium ions to participate.
- Promote the formation of bone. Second, only to calcium and phosphorus in bone, it is an essential element in the structure and function of bone cells. It plays an important role in promoting bone formation and bone regeneration and maintaining the strength and density of bones and teeth.
- Regulate the excitability of the neuromuscular. Can inhibit potassium and calcium channels. Magnesium, calcium and potassium ions synergistically maintain neuromuscular excitability. The magnesium in the blood is too low or the calcium is too low, and the excitability is increased; otherwise, there is a sedative effect.
- Maintains the function of the gastrointestinal tract and hormones.
- It is also an important neurotransmitter that relaxes muscles, it is supplemented with calcium-containing foods to promote calcium absorption.
The Chinese Nutrition Society recommends that adult males need about 350 mg of magnesium per day, about 300 mg for adult women, about 450 mg for pregnant women and women during feeding, 150 mg for children aged 2 to 3, and 200 mg for 3 to 6 years. The maximum tolerable intake (UL) was set at 700 mg/d.
Magnesium deficiency is mainly manifested in emotional discomfort, irritability, hand and foot convulsions, hyperreflexia, etc. Under normal circumstances, due to the regulation of the kidney, magnesium in the oral administration does not generally cause magnesium poisoning. When renal insufficiency, a large amount of oral magnesium can cause magnesium poisoning, which is abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, polydipsia, fatigue, fatigue, severe breathing difficulties, purpura, dilated pupils and so on.
It is widely distributed in plants, with more muscles and organs, and less in dairy products. The utilization rate of magnesium in animal foods is high, reaching 30% to 40%, and the utilization rate of magnesium in plant foods is low.
Magnesium foods can be absorbed throughout the intestine but are mainly absorbed at the end of the jejunum and the ileum, and the absorption rate is generally about 30%. It can be absorbed by both passive diffusion and active absorption of energy. The amount of magnesium ingested by healthy adults from the food is secreted from the bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal fluid to the intestines. 60% to 70% of them are excreted in the feces, some are lost from sweat and exfoliated skin cells, and the rest is excreted in the urine. 50 ~ 120mg, about 1/3 ~ 1/2 of the intake.
Lack of performance
Magnesium deficiency can cause serum calcium decline, neuromuscular hyperactivity, may have a potential impact on vascular function, it has been reported that patients with hypomagnesemia may have atrioventricular premature beats, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, half of which have blood pressure rise High, magnesium plays an important role in the homeostasis of bone minerals. Magnesium deficiency may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis; a few studies have shown that magnesium depletion can lead to insulin resistance.
Abnormal calcium metabolism.
Causes nervous system problems such as memory loss, neurological disorders, depression, hallucinations, muscle tremors, etc.
Affects organ function such as heart, bone, and gastrointestinal tract.
Causes muscle problems such as muscle weakness and cramps.
In the case of mild magnesium deficiency, magnesium may be added by diet or orally, magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide may be administered, and aluminum hydroxide may be used in combination to avoid diarrhea.
When oral administration is intolerable or non-absorptive, intramuscular magnesium can be used, generally 20% to 50% magnesium sulfate. Intravenous magnesium should pay attention to the occurrence of acute magnesium poisoning, so as not to cause cardiac arrest.
Therefore, avoid giving too much magnesium, too fast, in case of magnesium poisoning, it should be given by the injection of calcium gluconate or calcium chloride.
It is one of the lightest structural metal materials and has the advantages of high specific strength and specific stiffness, good damping and machinability, and easy recycling. Magnesium alloys are used in the automotive industry at home and abroad to reduce weight, save energy, reduce pollution and improve the environment.
In developed countries, fuel consumption per 100 kilometers will eventually achieve the 3L target. European automotive magnesium accounts for 14% of total magnesium consumption. It is expected to increase at a rate of 15-20% in the future and 200,000 tons in 2005.
Compared with plastic, magnesium alloy has lightweight, high specific strength, good vibration damping, good thermal fatigue performance, easy aging, good thermal conductivity, strong electromagnetic shielding ability, very good die casting process performance, especially easy to recycle. The advantages are a new generation of high-performance structural materials that replace steel, aluminum alloys, and engineering plastics.
In order to adapt to the trend of high integration of electronic and communication devices and thin and light miniaturization, magnesium alloy is ideal for housings of transportation, electronic information, communication, computers, audio-visual equipment, portable tools, motors, forestry, textiles, nuclear power plants, etc. material.
Developed countries attach great importance to the development and application of magnesium alloys, especially in the application of portable electronic products such as auto parts and notebook computers. The annual growth rate is 20%, which is very eye-catching and has an amazing development trend.
Magnesium metal is the main alloying element in aluminum alloys. The annual demand in the world is about 150,000 tons. In 2000, China’s aluminum alloy production was 2.9 million tons. Using magnesium as an alloying element, it needs about 101,000 tons per year.
With the increasing demand for high-strength low-sulfur steel in the automotive industry, oil and gas pipelines, offshore drilling platforms, bridge construction, etc., China’s Angang, Baosteel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, Benxi Steel, Baotou Steel, Panzhihua Iron and Steel, Shougang and other steel mills have already Deep desulfurization with magnesium powder, high quality steel, good results. Magnesium powder has a potential market for steel desulfurization. In addition, magnesium powder is also used in the manufacture of chemical products, pharmaceuticals, pyrotechnics, signals, lighting bombs and other materials, metal-reducing agents, paints, welding wire and spheroidizing agent for ductile iron.
As one of the effective methods to prevent metal corrosion, magnesium sacrificial anode can be widely used in underground iron pipelines, oil pipelines, storage tanks, offshore facilities, equipment, and civilian use.
Magnesium alloy profiles and pipes are used as bicycle frames, wheelchairs, rehabilitation, and medical equipment.
Magnesium can be burned in the air. It is very sparkling when burned. Therefore, fireworks are usually mixed with a certain amount of magnesium powder to achieve an aesthetic effect.
Modern warfare requires the military’s ability to have long-range rapid deployment movements, requiring weapons and equipment to be lightweight, and a large number of light metal materials will be used in hand-held weapons, armored combat vehicles, transport vehicles, and aviation-guided weapons.
Lightweight is an important direction to improve the operational performance of weapons and equipment. The light quality of magnesium determines that magnesium alloy is an indispensable structural material for the production of spacecraft, military aircraft, missiles, highly maneuvering vehicles, and ships. Therefore, vigorously developing the application range of magnesium alloys is the need for national defense modernization.
Before the 1950s, the development of magnesium was attached to the military industry. After the 1960s, due to the development of magnesium in the civilian market and space technology, it promoted the balanced growth of magnesium. In recent years, with the growth of applications of magnesium alloys in transportation, electronics, and communications, the consumption of magnesium in the world has increased year by year and has grown rapidly.
There are 10 countries in the world (excluding China), namely the United States, Canada, Norway, Russia, France, Italy, the former Yugoslavia, Brazil, India, and North Korea. In 2004, the world’s metal magnesium mining volume was 584,000 tons, including China’s 426,000 tons, Canada’s 54,000 tons, Russia’s 50,000 tons, Israel’s 28,000 tons, and Kazakhstan’s 18,000 tons.
Since the 1990s, the market economy has driven the development of China’s magnesium industry. In the 10 years of the 1990s, China’s primary magnesium production increased by 37 times, especially from 1995 to 2000, with an average annual growth rate of 15.84%, much higher than the growth rate of the Western world. China has become the world’s largest producer and exporter of primary magnesium.
From January to December 2006, the national total output of magnesium was 613,084.94 tons, an increase of 32.23%; from January to December 2007, the national total production of magnesium (magnesium) was 670,130.87 tons, an increase of 24.12%; from January to October 2008, the national Communist Metal magnesium (magnesium) was 539,498.36 tons, a year-on-year increase of 6.59%.
Industrially, metal magnesium is produced by electrolytically melting magnesium chloride or by reducing it with ferrosilicon or the like in an electric furnace. The former is called molten salt electrolysis, and the latter is called silicon thermal reduction.
MgCl2(l) = Mg(s) + Cl2(g)↑
Silicon thermal reduction
1 CaCO3(s) == high temperature ==CaO(s) + CO2(g)↑
CaO(s) + H2O(l) = Ca(OH)2(s)
2 Ca(OH)2(aq) + MgCl2(aq) === Mg(OH)2 (s)↓ + CaCl2(aq)
3 Mg(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(l) + 6H2O (l) === MgCl2 ·6H2O (s)+2H2O(l)
4 MgCl2·6H2O(s) === MgCl2(s) +6H2O(l)
Magnesium chloride can be extracted from seawater and contains approximately 12 billion pounds of magnesium per cubic mile of seawater.
MgCl2·6H2O(s) = MgCl2(s) + 6H2O(l)
MgCl2(l) == electrolysis == Mg(s)+Cl2(g)↑
First aid measures: Skin contact: Remove contaminated clothing and wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. Get medical attention if you feel uncomfortable.
Eye contact: Lift eyelids and rinse with running water or saline. Get medical attention if you feel uncomfortable.
Inhalation: Remove quickly from the scene to fresh air. Keep the airway open. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Breathing, heartbeat stops, and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seek medical attention.
Ingestion: Drink plenty of warm water and induce vomiting. Seek medical attention.
Fire-fighting measures: Hazardous characteristics: flammable, producing strong white light when burning and releasing high heat. Hydrogen reacts with water or moisture, releasing a large amount of heat, causing burning or explosion. In case of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, and oxidizing agents, there is a danger of burning and explosion. Powder and air can form an explosive mixture. When a certain concentration is reached, it will explode in the event of Mars.
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Hazardous combustion products: magnesium oxide.
Fire-fighting methods: Firefighters must wear air respirators, wear full-body fire-fighting anti-virus suits, and put them on the wind. Move the container from the fire to the open space as much as possible. Spray water to keep the fire container cool until the end of the fire. It is strictly forbidden to save water, foam and carbon dioxide. Eyes and skin must be protected during the rescue to avoid flying particles and burn your body.
Emergency treatment: Isolation of contaminated areas and restrictions on access. Eliminate all ignition sources. It is recommended that emergency personnel wear dust masks, dust masks, and antistatic clothing. Do not touch or cross spills. Cut off the source of the leak as much as possible. Do not use water for treatment. Small spill: Cover the spill with dry sand or other non-combustible material, then cover it with a plastic sheet to reduce scattering and rain. Powder leakage: Cover the spill with a plastic sheet or canvas to reduce scattering and keep it dry. Cleared under the guidance of an expert.
Detection method: flame atomic absorption spectrometry
Engineering Control: Closed operation. Safety showers and eyewash equipment are provided.
Respiratory protection: Filter dust-proof respirators should be worn during work. Wear an air-breathing apparatus if necessary.
Eye protection: Wear chemical safety glasses.
Body protection: Wear anti-static overalls.
Hand protection: Wear general working protective gloves.
Other protection: Smoking is strictly prohibited on the job site. Maintain good hygiene practices.
Incompatibility: acids, acid chlorides, halogens (chlorine, bromine, iodine), strong oxidants, chlorinated hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic.
Avoid contact conditions: moist air.
Polymerization hazard: no polymerization
Acute toxicity: Corrosive and irritating.
Other harmful effects: The substance may be harmful to the environment and it is recommended not to let it enter the environment.
Nature of waste: hazardous waste
Disposal methods: Refer to national and local regulations before disposal. Recycle if possible.
Disposal considerations: Refer to national and local regulations before disposal.
Dangerous code number: 41502
UN number: 1869
Packing mark: flammable solid
Packing category: Class II packaging
Packing method: full-open or medium-open steel drum outside plastic bag or two-layer kraft paper bag (steel plate thickness 0.75 mm, net weight not exceeding 100 kg per drum); plastic bag or two-layer kraft paper bag full-open or medium-open steel drum (steel plate Thickness 0.5 mm, net weight not exceeding 50 kg per barrel); metal barrel (can) or plastic barrel outside the box; threaded glass bottle, iron cover glass bottle, plastic bottle or metal barrel (can) outside the ordinary wooden box.
Transportation precautions: Transportation vehicles should be equipped with the corresponding variety and quantity of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. The vehicle exhaust pipe carrying the product shall have a fire-stopping device.
During transportation, ensure that the container does not leak, does not collapse, does not fall, and is not damaged. Mixing with oxidants, acids, halogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons, food chemicals, etc. is strictly prohibited. During transportation, it should be protected from exposure, rain and high temperature.
Keep away from fire and heat sources when you stop. Transport vehicles and boats must be dry and have good rain protection. The vehicle should be thoroughly cleaned after transportation. It is forbidden to slip when transporting by rail.
Operational precautions: Strengthen local exhaust. Operators must be specially trained to strictly follow the operating procedures. Operators are advised to wear self-priming filter dust masks, chemical safety glasses, and anti-static overalls. Keep away from fire, heat, and smoking in the workplace.
Use explosion-proof ventilation systems and equipment. Avoid dust. Avoid contact with oxidants, acids, halogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons. Pay particular attention to avoid contact with water.
Handle in nitrogen. Lightly load and unload during handling to prevent damage to packaging and containers. Equipped with the corresponding variety and quantity of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. Empty containers may be harmful residues.
Storage Precautions: Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated warehouse, away from fire and heat. The temperature of the reservoir does not exceed 32 °C, and the relative humidity does not exceed 75%. The package is sealed and must not be in contact with air. It should be stored separately from oxidants, acids, halogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc., and should not be mixed. Explosion-proof lighting and ventilation facilities are used. It is forbidden to use mechanical equipment and tools that are prone to sparks. The storage area should be provided with suitable materials to contain spills.