Vitamins are a large family. There are dozens of vitamins known at this stage, which can be roughly divided into two categories, fat-soluble and water-soluble. We will discuss a List of Vitamins in this Post.
Some substances in a chemical structure similar to a vitamin, metabolic response through simple converted to vitamins, provitamins such substances referred to, for example, β- carotene can be converted into vitamin A.
7- dehydrogenation of cholesterol may be converted to Vitamin D3. It takes many complex metabolic reactions to form. Nicotinic acid tryptophan cannot be called provitamin.
List of the Vitamins:-
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin B
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin K
- Vitamin H
- Vitamin P
- Vitamin PP
- Vitamin M
- Vitamin T
- Vitamin U
Unsaturated monohydric alcohols are fat-soluble vitamins. Because humans or mammals are prone to dry eye disease when they lack vitamin A, it is also called anti-dry eye alcohol. It is known that there are two types of vitamin A: A1 and A2. A1 exists in the liver, blood, and retina of the eyeball, and is also called retinol.
Natural vitamin A mainly exists in this form. A2 is mainly found in the liver of freshwater fish. Vitamin A1 is a fat-soluble light yellow flaky crystal with a melting point of 64°C, and vitamin A2 has a melting point of 17 to 19°C. It is usually a golden yellow oil. Vitamin A is a polyphenols containing a β- berberine ring.
The difference between the chemical structure of vitamin A2 and A1 is that there is only one extra double bond at the 3.4 positions of the β- berberine ring. Vitamin A has unsaturated bonds in the molecule and is chemically active. It is easily oxidized in the air or damaged by ultraviolet rays and loses its physiological effect.
Therefore, vitamin A preparations should be stored in brown bottles and protected from light. Both A1 and A2 can interact with antimony trichloride and present a dark blue color. This property can be used as a basis for the quantitative determination of vitamin A.
Which foods are high in vitamin A?
Many plants such as carrots, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, and corn contain carotenoids, such as α, β, γ-carotene, cryptoxanthin, and lutein. Some of these carotenoids have the same ring structure as vitamin A1 and can be converted into vitamin A in the body. Therefore, they are called provitamin A. β-carotene contains two ring structures of vitamin A1 and has the highest conversion rate.
One molecule of β-carotene and two molecules of water can produce two molecules of vitamin A1. In animals, this hydro-oxidation process is catalyzed by β-carotene-15,15′ -oxygenase, which occurs mainly in the mucosa of the small intestine of animals.
Vitamin A in food, or by β-carotene cleavage, is associated with fatty acids in small intestinal mucosa cells combined into esters, then incorporated into chylomicrons, absorbed into the body through the lymph. Animal livers are the main place to store vitamin A.
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When the body needs it, it is released into the blood. In blood, retinol (R) binds to retinol-binding protein (RBP) and plasma prealbumin (PA) to form R-RBP-PA complexes and transport them to various tissues.
It was derived from the cod liver in 1913 by the United States of America chemist Davies. It is a yellow powder that is insoluble in water and easily soluble in organic solvents such as fats and oils. Chemical properties are relatively stable, but it is easy to be damaged by ultraviolet rays and should be stored in brown bottles.
Vitamin A is the raw material of rhodopsin in the eyes, and it is also necessary for skin tissues. People who lack it will get dry eye disease, night blindness, etc.
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for complex organisms. It affects almost all tissue cells of the body in different ways. Although it is one of the earliest found vitamins, its physiological functions have not yet been fully revealed.
The main physiological functions of vitamin A include:
Vitamin A can promote the formation of photosensitive pigments in visual cells. All-trans-retinol maybe retinol to 11-cis isomerase – retinol, further oxidized to 11-cis – retinal, 11-cis – and may retinal opsin combined into rhodopsin Quality. The rhodopsin 11-cis-retinaldehyde becomes all-trans-retinal after encountering light.
Due to the change of conformation, rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor, which causes the stimulating effect of the optic nerve triggers vision. After exposure to light, rhodopsin is unstable, quickly decomposes into opsin and all-trans-retinal, and is reduced to all-trans-retinol by the action of reductase, restarting the whole cycle process.
Vitamin A can debug the eye’s ability to adapt to the external light, to reduce the occurrence of night blindness and vision loss, maintain a normal visual response, and help against a variety of eye diseases. The effect of vitamin A on vision is the earliest discovered and most well-known function.
Related to the regulation of genes by retinol. Retinol also has the effect equivalent to steroid hormones, which can promote the synthesis of glycoproteins. Promote growth, development, strengthen bones, and maintain the health of hair, teeth and gums.
Maintain the integrity and integrity of the epithelial structure
Retinol and retinoic acid can regulate gene expression, reduce the differentiation of epithelial cells into scales, and increase the number of epithelial growth factor receptors.
Therefore, vitamin A can regulate the growth of epithelial cells and maintain the normal shape and function of epithelial tissues. Keep the skin moist, prevent the skin and mucous membranes from being dry and keratinized, not easy to be harmed by bacteria, help to treat acne, pustules, scabies, skin surface ulcers, etc. help to eliminate age spots can maintain the health of tissue or organ surface. Lack of vitamin A will reduce the function of epithelial cells, resulting in decreased skin elasticity, dryness and roughness, and loss of gloss.
Vitamin A helps maintain the normal function of the immune system, strengthens the body’s resistance to infectious diseases, especially respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, and helps treat emphysema and hyperthyroidism.
Scavenge Free Radicals
Vitamin A also has a certain antioxidant effect, which can neutralize harmful free radicals.
In addition, many studies have shown that skin cancer, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, bladder cancer, and esophageal cancer are all related to vitamin A intake. However, these studies are still to be confirmed clinically.
Vitamin A- Daily Demand
The minimum daily vitamin A requirement for normal adults is about 3,500 international units (0.3 micrograms of vitamin A or 0.332 micrograms of acetyl vitamin A is equivalent to one international unit), and children are about 2000 to 2,500 international units, which should not be taken too much. Shows that it also has anti-cancer effects. Animal livers are particularly rich in vitamin A, followed by cream and eggs.
Women need 0.8 mg. That is 80 grams of eel, 65 grams of chicken liver, 75 grams of carrot, 125 grams of savoy cabbage or 200 grams of tuna.
Efficacy: Strengthen the immune system, help cells regenerate, and protect cells from free radicals that can cause a variety of diseases. It can protect the mucous membranes of the organs such as the respiratory tract, mouth, stomach and intestines, and vitamin A can be eye-catching.
B1 is the first vitamin to be purified by people. In 1896, a scientist from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ikman, first discovered that in 1910, Polish chemist Funk was extracted and purified from rice bran. It is a white powder, easily soluble in water, and easily decomposed in the presence of alkali. Its physiological function is to increase appetite and maintain normal nerve activity.
What does vitamin b1 do to the body?
It can cause beriberi and neurodermatitis. Adults need 2mg daily. It is widely found in rice bran, egg yolk, milk, tomato and other foods, and can be artificially synthesized at this stage. Because its molecule contains sulfur and amino, it is called thiamine, also known as beriberi vitamin.
The extracted vitamin B1 hydrochloride is a monoclinic crystal, the vitamin B1 nitrate is a colorless triclinic crystal without hygroscopicity.
Vitamin B1 is easily soluble in water and can be lost with water in the process of food cleaning. After heating, B1 mainly exists in the soup. Vitamins can be lost or destroyed in large quantities if the dishes are too finely processed, improperly cooked, or made into canned food. Vitamin B1 can be easily destroyed by heating in an alkaline solution.
The latter can show blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Using this feature, vitamin B1 can be detected and quantified. Vitamin B1 is converted into thiamine pyrophosphate (also known as cocarboxylase) in the body and is involved in the metabolism of sugar in the body.
Therefore, in the absence of vitamin B1, the oxidation of sugar in tissues is affected. It also inhibits cholinesterase activity effect of vitamin B1 in the absence of this enzymatic activity is too high, acetylcholine (one neurotransmitter) destruction of a large number of affected nerve conduction, can cause slow gastric motility, gastrointestinal secretion, Loss of appetite and indigestion.
Maintain the normal metabolism of the human body and the normal physiological functions of the nervous system.
It is directly related to energy production, promotes growth and cell regeneration, and enhances vision B2, also known as riboflavin. Bruce, a chemist in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, first discovered it from whey in 1879, and it was extracted from milk by the chemist Gorberger in the United States of America in 1933. It was synthesized by German chemist Cohen in 1935.
Vitamin B2 is an orange-yellow needle-like crystal with a slightly bitter taste. The aqueous solution has yellow-green fluorescence and is easily decomposed under alkaline or light conditions. This is the reason for not making alkali. The human body lacks it susceptible to stomatitis, dermatitis, microangiopathy and so on. Adults should consume 2 to 4 mg per day. It is found in large quantities in foods such as cereals, vegetables, milk and fish.
Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is the body’s most in need of B vitamins. It is not only a vitamin to maintain a healthy digestive system, but also an indispensable substance for the synthesis of sexual hormones. For modern people who are full of stress, the efficacy of niacin in maintaining the health of the nervous system and normal functioning of the brain can never be ignored.
Recommended daily intake: The recommended daily intake for adults is 13 to 19 mg. 20 mg for pregnant women (maternity products, information for pregnant women), 22 mg for lactating women.
Need the crowd
People who are troubled by cholesterol can increase the intake of niacin when the skin is particularly sensitive to sunlight, it is often an early symptom of niacin deficiency, people with dermatitis, peeling and rough skin need niacin, lack of body People with vitamin B1.B2.B6 need extra supplements because they cannot synthesize nicotinic acid from tryptophan.
They are nervous, irritable, and even schizophrenic people have the benefit of vitamin B3. People with diabetes and hyperthyroidism need niacin.
Pantothenic Acid:- C9H17NO5
B5 is also called pantothenic acid. Anti-stress, anti-cold, anti-infection, prevent the toxicity of certain antibiotics, eliminate postoperative abdominal distension.
Vitamin B6: Helps break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It has the functions of suppressing vomiting and promoting development, and its absence can cause symptoms such as vomiting and cramps. Includes three substances, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine.
Pyridoxine is converted into pyridoxal in the body, and pyridoxal and pyridoxamine can be converted into each other. Yeast, liver, lean meat, cereals, cabbage and other foods are rich in vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 is easily soluble in water and alcohol, slightly soluble in fatty solvents; it is easily damaged when exposed to light and alkali and is not resistant to high temperatures.
Vitamin B6 combines with phosphoric acid in the body to form pyridoxal phosphate or pyridoxamine phosphate. They are many coenzymes related to amino acid metabolism enzymes, so they are very important for amino acid metabolism.
The human body needs about 1.5 to 2 milligrams per day. Food is rich in vitamin B6, and intestinal bacteria can also synthesize, so humans rarely develop vitamin B6 deficiency.
Side effects: About 100 mg daily will cause damage to the brain and nerves. Excessive intake may also cause so-called neuropathy, a neurological disease that is dull. In the worst case, the skin can become unconscious.
Vitamin B7 (also known as biotin) is part of the B vitamins. “Vincent DuVigneaud” first discovered this biotin in 1940. The main role of B7 is to help human cells convert carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy they can use. However, this is just one of its many features.
1. It is a water-soluble vitamin: there are two different types of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. First, fat-soluble vitamins are very stable and difficult to destroy. Water-soluble vitamins are more sensitive and can be easily destroyed by powerful heat and light. Second, fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the body, while water-soluble vitamins cannot.
Vitamin B7 is a water-soluble vitamin, which means you need to consume a certain amount every day. The recommended amount is 0.03mg for men and 0.01mg for women. In addition, make sure that foods containing this vitamin are properly stored and cooked to ensure that their B7 content is intact.
2. It is included in almost all foods: almost all grains contain at least traces of vitamin B7. However, some foods are more abundant. Such as egg yolk, liver, milk, mushrooms and nuts are the best sources of biotin. Therefore, these foods should be included in the diet.
3. There are many factors that can cause vitamin B7 deficiency: Unlike most vitamins, insufficient B7 intake is not the only cause of the deficiency. Alcoholism can hinder the absorption of this vitamin, and some genetic disorders may require you to increase your B7 intake. Therefore, due consideration should be given to more supplements based on the above factors.
4. Helps control diabetes: Research shows that the role of vitamin B7 also includes helping patients with diabetes control blood sugar levels and prevent nerve damage caused by the disease.
Also called folic acid. There are many forms of coenzymes in the cell, responsible for single carbon metabolism utilization, used to synthesize purine and thymine, as raw materials for DNA replication during cell proliferation, providing methyl groups to synthesize cysteine to methionine, assisting many Conversion between amino acids.
Therefore, the role of folic acid involved in cell proliferation, reproductive, heme synthesis of blood cell differentiation of mature development of the fetus (fetal neural development and proliferation of blood cells) have a significant impact. Avoiding the accumulation of cysteine can protect the blood vessels of the heart and may also slow the occurrence of dementia.
It maintains a healthy nervous system for the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency is megaloblastic anemia. In 1947, Xiao Bo, a female scientist in the United States of America, found vitamin B12 in the beef liver infusion. After analysis by a chemist, it was an organic compound containing cobalt. It is chemically stable and is an indispensable substance for human hematopoiesis. Without it, it will produce pernicious anemia.
Vitamin B12, which is an anti-malignant vitamin, also known as cobalamin, contains metallic element cobalt. It is the only vitamin in the vitamin that contains metal elements. It resists fatty liver and promotes the storage of vitamin A in the liver. It also promotes cell maturation and body metabolism. It is different from other B vitamins.
Generally, it is very little in plants and is only produced by certain bacteria and bacteria in the soil. Before it can be absorbed, it must be combined with a glycoprotein (also known as an internal factor ) secreted by the gastric pylorus. B12 deficiency due to a lack of ” internal factors ” should be treated with injections. Deoxyadenosylcobalamin is the main form of vitamin B12 in the body.
It is a coenzyme that catalyzes the exchange of hydrogen, alkyl, carbonyl or amino groups on two adjacent carbon atoms. Another form of coenzyme in the body is methylcobalamin, which participates in the transport of methyl groups and is often related to the role of folic acid. It can increase the utilization of folic acid to affect the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, thereby promoting the development and maturation of red blood cells.
In the absence of vitamin B12, pernicious anemia occurs, and the human body requires very little B12. The human body needs about 12 μg (1/1000 mg) per day, which is generally not lacking in humans.
Lactic acid:- C5H4N2O4
There is no recommended daily intake. It can prevent liver disease and premature aging and is helpful for the treatment of various sclerosis. Studies have not found any vitamin B13 deficiency.
Side effects: So far, people’s knowledge of vitamin B13 is limited, so there is no example guideline.
The enemy of vitamin B13: water, sunlight
Recommendations: People have limited knowledge of vitamin B13 and fail to make recommendations, as directed by a physician or nutritionist.
Pangamic acid:- C10H19NO8
Vitamin B15 is mainly used to fight fatty liver and increase the oxygen metabolism rate of tissues. Sometimes used to treat coronary heart disease and chronic alcoholism.
Very toxic. Some people think that it can control and prevent cancer.
In addition, choline and inositol are often classified as essential vitamins. They are members of the vitamin B family.
Ascorbic Acid:- C6H8O6
Vitamin C, also called L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that can treat scurvy and is acidic, so it is called ascorbic acid. High in lemon juice, green plants and tomatoes. Ascorbic acid is a monoclinic or needle crystal and is easily oxidized to generate dehydroascorbic acid. Dehydroascorbic acid still has the function of vitamin C.
In alkaline solutions, the lactone ring in the molecule of dehydroascorbic acid is easily hydrolyzed to diketogulonic acid. This compound cannot become a lactone type structure in animals. In the last generation body oxalic acid or sulfuric acid bound to the sulfate, from urine. Therefore, diketogulonic acid no longer has physiological activity.
In 1907, the Norwegian chemist Holst discovered in lemon juice, which was only obtained in 1934 and can now be artificially synthesized. Vitamin C is the most unstable vitamin. Because it is easily oxidized, vitamin C can be destroyed during food storage or cooking, even when chopping fresh vegetables.
Trace amounts of copper and iron ions can speed up the destruction. Therefore, only fresh vegetables, fruits or mixed vegetables are a rich source of vitamin C. It is a colorless crystal with a melting point of 190 to 192°C. It is easily soluble in water. The aqueous solution is acidic and chemically active. It is easy to decompose under heat, alkali and heavy metal ions.
Plants and most animals can synthesize vitamin C in their bodies. However, humans, primates, and guinea pigs lack the enzymes that convert L-gulonic acid into vitamin C and cannot synthesize vitamin C. Therefore, they must be taken from food. If vitamin C is lacking in food, it will cause damage. Blood disease. At this time, bleeding occurred due to interstitial cell formation disorders, loose teeth, difficult healing of the wound, and easy fractures.
Because vitamin C has a longer half-life in the human body (approximately 16 days), scurvy does not occur until 3 to 4 months after eating foods without vitamin C. Because vitamin C is easily oxidized and reduced, it is generally believed that its natural effect should be related to this characteristic. Vitamin C is directly related to the normal synthesis of collagen, tyrosine metabolism and iron absorption in the body.
The main function of vitamin C is to help the body complete the redox reaction, which improves the brain power and improves the intelligence. According to the Nobel Prize winner Pauling research, taking large doses of vitamin C has a certain effect on preventing colds and anticancer.
However, some people have suggested that vitamin C can promote the generation of free radicals in the presence of ferrous ions (Fe2 +), so it is considered unsafe to use a large amount.
The Dietary Reference Intake (RNI) recommended by the Chinese Society of Nutritionists is 100 mg / day for adults, the maximum intake is 1000 mg / day, and the maximum intake (UL) is 1000 mg / day. That is half a guava, 75 grams of pepper, 90 grams of broccoli, 2 kiwis, 150 grams of strawberries, 1 grapefruit, half papaya, 125 grams of fennel, 150 grams of cauliflower or 200 ml of orange juice.
Efficacy: 1. Vitamin C can capture free radicals, which can prevent diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis and rheumatism. In addition, it enhances immunity and is good for skin, gums and nerves.
2. Supplement vitamin C to prevent cataract. Cataract is a common eye disease in the elderly at this stage. In severe cases, it can cause complete blindness, impair reading, and affect daily life. As the level of ozone damage continues to increase, the incidence of cataracts is increasing.
Experts believe that the formation of cataracts is caused by the oxidation of crystals. Vitamin C can inhibit this oxidation, and taking three tablets of vitamin C (100 mg each) daily can have a protective effect. In addition, taking vitamin C has a positive effect on protecting the liver and preventing gastric cancer.
Side effects: So far, vitamin C is considered harmless because the kidneys can excrete excess vitamin C. A newly published study in the United States states that a large amount of vitamin C circulation in the body is not good for wound healing. Daily intake of more than 1,000 milligrams of vitamin C can cause diarrhea, kidney stones of infertility disorders, or even causing gene defect.
According to research at home and abroad, with the increasing use of vitamin C, adverse reactions are increasing.
diarrhea. Taking 1 to 4 grams of vitamin C daily can accelerate the small intestine peristalsis and cause abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Stomach bleeding. Long-term oral administration of vitamin C can cause nausea and vomiting. At the same time, due to increased gastric acid secretion, it can promote the pain of gastric and duodenal ulcers. In severe cases, it can also cause gastric mucosal hyperemia and edema, which leads to gastric bleeding.
stone. After a large amount of vitamin C enters the body, most of it is metabolized and decomposed by the liver. The final product is oxalic acid, which is excreted from the urine into oxalate. Some people have found that 4 grams of vitamin C taken orally every day, within 24 hours, The amount of salt will increase from 58 mg to 620 mg. If you continue to take it, oxalate will continue to increase, which will easily cause urinary system stones .
Gout. Gout is a disease caused by a disorder in the purine metabolism in the body, which is mainly manifested in the high concentration of uric acid in the blood, which causes a series of symptoms in the joints, connective tissues and kidneys. Taking a large amount of vitamin C can cause a sharp increase in uric acid and induce gout.
Infant dependence. Pregnant women who take large amounts of vitamin C continuously can make the fetus dependent on the drug. After birth, if you do not give your baby a large amount of vitamin C, scurvy can occur, such as loss of energy, redness, bleeding, subcutaneous bleeding, and even gastrointestinal and urinary tract bleeding symptoms.
Children’s orthopedics. Children taking vitamin C in large quantities can suffer from orthopedic diseases, and the incidence is high.
Infertility. Women of childbearing age who take large amounts of vitamin C for a long time (such as when the daily dose is greater than 2 grams) will reduce fertility.
Reduced immunity. Taking large amounts of vitamin C for a long time can reduce the phagocytosis of white blood cells and reduce the body’s resistance to disease.
Allergic reactions. Mainly manifested as rash, nausea, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock can occur in severe cases, so it cannot be abused.
It is a steroid derivative and is a fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin D is related to the calcification of animal bones, so it is also called calcification alcohol. It has anti-rickets effect, and it is more abundant in animal liver, milk and egg yolk, especially cod liver oil. There are two types of natural vitamin D, ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3).
The ergosterol (24- methyl- 22 dehydro-7-dehydrocholesterol) contained in vegetable oil or yeast can be converted into vitamin D2 after being activated by ultraviolet rays. Under the skin of animals, 7-dehydrocholesterol can also be converted into vitamin D3 by ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, ergosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol are often referred to as provitamin D.
In animals, they must undergo a series of metabolic transformations in animals in order to become active substances. This transformation is mainly a hydroxylation reaction in the liver and kidneys. First, it is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver, and then further hydroxylated to 1,25 (OH) 2-D3 in the kidney, which is vitamin D3. Active form in the body. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 has significant activity in regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism (Figure 11).
It promotes small intestinal absorption and transport of phosphorus, but also to promote the renal tubular calcium reabsorption. In bones, it not only helps the calcification of new bones, but also promotes the release of calcium from old bone marrow, thereby continuously renewing bone mass, while maintaining the balance of blood calcium.
Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is transferred to the blood circulation after kidney synthesis, and acts on long-range target tissues such as the small intestine, renal tubules, and bone tissue, which basically meets the characteristics of hormones, some people classify vitamin D as a hormone substance.
Vitamin D has the effect of regulating calcium, so it is necessary for the normal development of bones and teeth. Especially in pregnant women, babies and adolescents need a lot.
If the amount of vitamin D is insufficient at this time, calcium and phosphorus in the blood will be lower than normal, and bones will become soft and deformed, it occurs in children called rickets, in pregnant women it is osteomalacia. One gram of vitamin D is 40 million international units. The daily requirement for infants, adolescents, pregnant women and breastfeeders is 400 to 800 units.
Vitamin D was first extracted from cod liver oil by chemist Carl in 1926. It is a pale yellow crystal with a melting point of 115-118°C. It is insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents such as ether. It is chemically stable and can still maintain biological activity at 200°C, but is easily destroyed by ultraviolet light. Therefore, vitamin D-containing drugs should be stored in brown bottles.
The physiological function of vitamin D is to help the body absorb phosphorus and calcium, and it is an essential raw material for bone formation. Therefore, lack of vitamin D can cause snoring. It is abundant in cod liver oil, animal liver and egg yolk. The synthesis of vitamin D in the human body is related to sun exposure, so proper light is good for health.
0.0005 to 0.01 mg. 35 g herring fillets, 60 g salmon fillets, 50 g eel or 2 eggs plus 150 g mushrooms. Only people with little rest need to eat foods or preparations containing vitamin D.
Efficacy: Vitamin D is the engine that forms bones and cartilage, making teeth hard. It is also important for nerves and has an inhibitory effect on inflammation.
Side effects: Researchers estimate that long-term intake of 0.025 mg of vitamin D per day is harmful to the human body. Possible consequences: nausea, headache, kidney stones, muscle atrophy, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, mild poisoning, diarrhea, thirst, weight loss, polyuria and nocturia. Severe poisoning can damage the kidneys and cause calcification of soft tissues (such as the heart, blood vessels, bronchial tubes, stomach, and renal tubules).
2. Vitamin D supplementation prevents osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a common disease among middle-aged people, especially those who lack physical exercise and are confined to working women in the office all day.
3. Vitamin E supplements anti-aging and anti-cancer. Vitamin E, also known as tocopherol, is an excellent antioxidant. First, it helps to delay aging, enhance the body’s immune level, help the body clear accumulated oxygen free radicals, and make the skin more delicate and more elastic;
For example, those who eat fresh vegetables and fruits are not required to take vitamin C, if outdoor manual workers often bask in the sun, they can be transformed by the skin to form rich vitamin D, and no additional supplement is needed. In addition, although the vitamins in various places have good antioxidant benefits, they should not be taken in high concentrations or overdose, otherwise, they will become self-defeating and affect health.
Vitamin E:- C29H50O2
Vitamin E is the general name of all tocopherols and tocotrienols and their derivatives with alpha-tocopherol activity, also known as tocopherols. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is mainly found in vegetables and legumes. It is the most abundant in oil. Naturally occurring vitamin E 8 species, were derivatives of benzo dihydropyran, depending on their chemical structure can be divided tocopherols and tocotrienols Type II (FIG. 12), but also according to each category methyl of The number and position are different, divided into four kinds of α-, β-, γ- and δ-.
Commercial vitamin E has the highest physiological activity of α-tocopherol. The physiological activities of β- and γ-tocopherol and α-triene tocopherol are only 40%, 8% and 20% of α-.
Natural alpha-tocopherol is a dextro-type, namely d-alpha-tocopherol. It is the most biologically active form of vitamin E. 1 gram of d-α-tocopherol has a biological activity of 1490 IU, so it is called 1490 vitamin E.
In addition, derivatives such as d-α-tocopheryl acetate and d-α-tocopherol succinate are often used in vitamin E supplements. Because 1 g of d-α-tocopheryl acetate has a biological activity of only 1360 IU, it is called 1360 vitamin E, and d-α-tocopheryl acetate and succinate must pass pancreatic lipase and intestine before absorption.
Mucosal lipase can be absorbed by the human body when it is hydrolyzed into biologically active free tocopherol, that is, α-tocopherol, and it can play an antioxidant role, so external users cannot play an antioxidant role. In external use, d-α-tocopherol acetate can only play a moisturizing role, while d-α-tocopherol has a dual effect of moisturizing and antioxidant.
Vitamin E is a slightly viscous, light yellow oily substance, which is relatively stable under anaerobic conditions and will not be destroyed even when it is heated above 200 ° C. But in the air, vitamin E is easily oxidized and the color becomes darker. Vitamin E is prone to oxidation.
Therefore, it can protect other easily oxidizable substances (such as vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids) from being destroyed. Vitamin E in food is mainly absorbed in the upper small intestine of animals, and is mainly carried by β-lipoprotein in the blood and transported to various tissues. Isotopic tracer experiments show that α-tocopherol can be oxidized to α-tocoquinone in tissues.
The latter is then reduced fertility α- hydroquinone, it may be in the liver and glucose binding glucuronic acid, with the bile into the intestine, by the fecal discharge. The metabolism of other vitamin E is similar to that of alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is necessary for animal reproduction. In the absence of vitamin E, the testes of male mice degenerate and normal sperm cannot form, female embryos and placenta shrink and are absorbed, which can cause miscarriage.
Animals lacking vitamin E can also develop muscle atrophy, anemia, brain softening, and other neurodegenerative diseases. If accompanied by insufficient protein, it can cause acute liver cirrhosis. Although the metabolic mechanism of these lesions has not been fully elucidated, various functions of vitamin E may be related to its antioxidant effect.
The symptoms of some human diseases are similar to those of animals lacking vitamin E. Because the vitamin E content in general food is still sufficient, it is easier to absorb, so vitamin E deficiency is not easy to occur, only when the intestinal lipid absorption is incomplete. Vitamin E is widely used in clinical trials and has been found to have certain prevention and treatment effects on certain diseases, such as anemia atherosclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cerebral edema, male or female infertility, threatened abortion, etc.
Vitamins are also available E prevents aging. Vitamin E was discovered and extracted from malt oil by Evans, a chemist in the United States of America, in 1922. It was already artificially synthesized in the 1940s. Vitamin E is an excellent antioxidant in the human body. If the human body lacks it, neither men nor women can have children. In severe cases, it can cause muscular dystrophy and neuro numbness.
It is a fat-soluble vitamin. Because it has the function of promoting blood coagulation, it is also called blood coagulation vitamin. Common are vitamin K1 and K2. K1 is synthesized by plants, such as green leafy plants such as alfalfa, spinach. K2 is synthesized by microorganisms.
Human intestinal bacteria can also synthesize vitamin K2. Modern vitamin K can be artificially synthesized, such as vitamin K3, which is commonly used in clinical practice. Vitamin K is a derivative of 2- methyl -1,4 -naphthoquinone. Vitamin K1 is a yellow oily substance, and K2 is a pale yellow crystal, both of which are heat resistant, but are easily damaged by ultraviolet radiation, so they should be stored protected from light.
Synthetic K3 and K4 are water-soluble and can be used orally or by injection. The anticoagulant drug coumarin used clinically has a chemical structure similar to that of vitamin K, which can counteract the effects of vitamin K and can be used to prevent the formation of thrombus.
Vitamin K is closely related to the four coagulation factors synthesized by the liver ( prothrombin, factor Ⅶ, Ⅸ, and X). If vitamin K1 is lacking, the four coagulation factors synthesized by the liver are abnormal protein molecules, and their ability to catalyze coagulation Greatly decreased.
Vitamin K is known to be a cofactor for the glutamate gamma-carboxylation reaction. In the absence of vitamin K, the γ-carboxylation of the above-mentioned coagulation factors cannot proceed. In addition, these blood coagulation factors are reduced, and coagulation retardation and bleeding disorders may occur.
it is recognized that vitamin K is dissolved in the lipids of the mitochondrial membrane and plays an electron transfer function. Vitamin K can increase intestinal motility and secretory function.
In the absence of vitamin K, smooth muscle tension and contraction weaken, and it can also affect the metabolism of some hormones. Such as delaying the decomposition of glucocorticoids in the liver, while having a hydrocortisone-like effect, long-term injection of vitamin K can increase the endocrine activity of the thyroid.
Vitamin K deficiency is common in biliary obstruction, fatty rash, and long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. And in newborns, the use of vitamin K can be corrected. However, excessive doses of vitamin K also have a certain degree of toxicity, such as 30 mg/day for neonatal injections, which may cause hyperbilirubinemia for three consecutive days.
Vitamin K was discovered and extracted from animal liver and hemp seed oil by the Danish chemist Dam in 1929. It is a yellow crystal with a melting point of 52-54°C. It is insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents such as ether. Vitamin K is chemically stable, heat and acid resistant, but easily decomposed by alkali and ultraviolet light. It promotes blood clotting in the body.
The human body lacks it, prolongs the clotting time, and in severe cases, the bleeding will not stop and even death. Strangely, there is a kind of bacteria in the human intestine that will continuously produce vitamin K for the human body.
In addition, it is rich in pork liver, eggs, and vegetables. Therefore, most people will not lack it. At this stage, it can be artificially synthesized, and chemists can cleverly change its “character” to be water-soluble, which is beneficial to human body absorption and has been widely used in medicine.
Biotin, also known as vitamin H and coenzyme R, also belongs to the vitamin B family. It is an essential substance for the synthesis of vitamin C and is an indispensable substance for the normal metabolism of fats and proteins.
It is a colorless long needle-like crystal with a fluorene ring combined with urea and thiophene and has a valeric acid side chain. It is soluble in hot water and insoluble in organic solvents. It is quite stable at ordinary temperatures, but high temperatures and oxidants can. It loses activity.
Biotin combines with enzymes to participate in the fixation and carboxylation of carbon dioxide in the body and is converted into oxaloacetate by important metabolic processes in the body, such as carboxylation of pyruvate, and acetylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, etc. Related to the main biochemical reactions. It is also a growth factor for certain microorganisms, and a very small amount (0.005 micrograms) can cause the test bacteria to grow.
For example, Streptomyces requires very little biotin to grow. The human body needs about 100 to 300 micrograms per day. There is an avidin protein in raw egg white that can be combined with biotin, and the combined biotin cannot be absorbed by the digestive tract, resulting in a lack of biotin in the animal body, at this time, loss of appetite, glossitis, dandruff dermatitis, hair loss Wait.
However, no cases of human biotin deficiency have been seen, probably because intestinal bacteria can synthesize biotin in addition to food sources. Vitamin H has the effect of preventing white hair and hair loss and maintaining skin health. If biotin is used together with vitamin A, B2.B6. Nicotinic acid (vitamin B3), they will complement each other and have a better effect. Vitamin H is commonly found in multivitamin B and multivitamin formulations.
Vitamin P is a citrus genus bioflavonoids, rutin, and hesperetin configuration. Vitamin C is contained in multivitamin C and is also water-soluble. It can prevent vitamin C from being oxidized and damaged, and enhance the effect of vitamins.
It can strengthen capillary walls and prevent bruising. It is helpful for the prevention and treatment of gum bleeding, and for the treatment of edema or dizziness caused by diseases of the inner ear. Many nutritionists believe that every 500 mg of vitamin C should take at least 100 mg of bioflavonoids. To enhance their synergy.
Vitamin PP, an anti- keratosis vitamin, also known as niacin, is chemically named nicotinic acid or nicotinamide, both of which can be converted into each other in the body. Niacin is a white needle-like crystal, slightly soluble in water, Nicotinamide is a white crystal, easily soluble in water. Nicotinamide is commonly used by people who use it because nicotinic acid has a temporary vasodilator effect.
This vitamin is relatively stable and generally does not inactivate when cooked. Nicotinamide and ribose, phosphate, and adenine form coenzyme Ⅰ and coenzyme Ⅱ of dehydrogenase in the body. The nicotinamide moiety in these two coenzyme structures has reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties and plays a role in hydrogen transfer in biological oxidation. Such coenzymes are required for sugar, fat and protein metabolism.
What is vitamin PP good for?
The human body needs about 20 mg per day. When a person lacks this vitamin, it manifests as a neurotrophic disorder. At first, the whole body is weak. Later, symmetrical dermatitis appears on both hands, cheeks, left and right forehead and other exposed parts. Large doses of nicotinic acid can dilate small blood vessels and reduce blood cholesterol levels, it is often used clinically to treat inner ear vertigo, peripheral vascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, and optic nerve atrophy.
Also called folic acid, anti-anemia maintains the normal growth of cells and the function of the immune system and prevents fetal malformations. It is made from the combination of purine, para-aminobenzoic acid, and glutamic acid. It is rich in the green leaves of vegetables.
Folic acid is yellow crystals, slightly soluble in water, unstable in acidic solutions, and easily damaged by light. Food is stored at room temperature and its folic acid is also easily lost. Folic acid is converted into tetrahydrofolate in the body, which is a coenzyme of many enzymes.
Tetrahydrofolate transfers one-carbon groups between compounds. These one-carbon groups include methyl (-CH3), methylol (-CH2OH), methoxy (-OCH3), and imino formyl (- CO-NH). The conversion of the one-carbon group is an essential step in the biosynthesis of choline, serine, histidine, DNA and so on.
What is Vitamin M used for?
The lack of folic acid in the human body is mainly manifested by a decrease in white blood cells. And an increase in the volume of red blood cells, and the occurrence of giant cell anemia. The number of leaves of neutrophil leukocytes is not an average of 2 to 3 leaves, but the number of leukocytes of 5 or more leaves increases significantly. Human intestinal bacteria can synthesize folic acid, so it is generally not prone to a lack of disease.
However, folic acid deficiency can be caused when malabsorption, metabolic disorders or high tissue requirements and long-term use of intestinal antibacterial drugs (such as sulfa drugs). The human body needs about 400 micrograms per day.
Vitamin T Helps blood clots and platelet formation.
Name:- Vitamin U, Iodomethyl Methylthiobutanine
Information: Molecular formula C6H14NO2IS, molecular weight 291.2. The scientific name is iodomethyl methyl thio butene. It is found in cabbage, lettuce, alfalfa, and other green leafy vegetables. It has a special smell and a salty taste. It is unstable in the light or in the air.
Soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol and ether. The aqueous solution is acidic. It is mainly used to treat gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. It can be prepared by the reaction of methionine and methyl iodide.
This is the List of Vitamins.