Organic Chemistry

Ionic Bond in Chemistry

Ionic bonds are formed by the loss or acquisition of electrons by two or more atoms or chemical groups. There is electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions. Ionic Bond

When two oppositely charged ions are close to each other, they appear to attract each other, and electrons and electrons, nucleus and nucleus have electrostatic repulsion between them, when electrostatic attraction and electrostatic repulsion, when the action reaches equilibrium, an ionic bond is formed.

potassium_Ionic

Therefore, an ionic bond refers to an anion, a chemical bond formed by electrostatic interaction between cations.

Ionic bonds are chemical bonds, most salts, bonds formed by alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, and active metal oxides have ionic bonds. A compound containing an ionic bond is called an ionic compound. The ionic bond is related to the melting point and hardness of the object.

Introduction

Also known ionomer salts bond is a chemical bond is one of two or more atoms loses or gains or chemical group electrons and become ions after forming.

There is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged atoms or groups. When two oppositely charged atoms or groups are close together, the surrounding water molecules are released into free water, between negatively charged and positively charged atoms or groups. The electrostatic attraction generated creates an ionic bond.

Ionic Bond

Such chemical bonds are often formed between metals and non- metals. The electrons are often atoms of metal elements, while the electrons are often atoms of non-metal elements.

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The oppositely charged ions attract each other by electromagnetic force to form a chemical bond. Ionomer more hydrogen bond strength and the strength thereof covalently closed.

Bonding particles: anions and cations.

The nature of the bond: the electrostatic interaction between the anion and the cation;

Influencing factors: the larger the radius of the anion and cation, the smaller the ionic bond; the charge of the anion and cation.

Electronic: The expression of the outermost electron of an atom by “·” or “x” around the element symbol.

Nature

The ionic bond has a strong force, no saturation, and no directionality.

Ionic bonds are present in the ionic compound, which is present in crystalline form at room temperature.

Ionomer more hydrogen bond strength, and the strength thereof covalently close.

Whether the anion and cation are neutralized

Some people may ask, is the combination of anions and cations, and whether the charges are neutralized? In addition to the electrostatic attraction between sodium ions and chloride ions, there are electrons and electrons, and the mutual repulsion between the nucleus and the nucleus.

Ionic Bond

When the two ions approach a certain distance, the attraction and repulsion reach an equilibrium, and a stable chemical bond is formed between the anion and the cation. Therefore, the phenomenon that the anion and cation charges are mutually neutralized does not occur.

Lattice energy

Ionic bond energy is relatively large, is reflected in the high-melting-boiling ionic compounds, the ionic bond can be called lattice energy, and the ion lattice energy of the crystal symbols dissociation enthalpy change is consistent with the symbol.

The lattice energy can be calculated by the Bōrn-Haber cycle or the Born -Landé formula (Bōrn-Landé), or it can be measured by experimental measurements.

The following is the lattice energy data calculated by the Bōrn-Haber cycle. Unit: kJ / m

Types ofNaFNaClNaBrNaIKFKClKBrKIBeO
Lattice energy9237867477048127157306494443
Types ofMgOCaOSrOBaO
Lattice energy3791340132233054

Note: The calculation of the required parameters (sublimation enthalpy, ionization energy, vaporization heat, bond energy, electron affinity) data are taken from “Inorganic Chemistry (Fifth Edition)”, 2006.

Formation

The ionic bond is formed by electron transfer (a cation that loses electrons and an anion that acquires electrons). There is electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions.

When two oppositely charged ions are close to each other, they appear to attract each other, and electrons and electrons, nuclei and nuclei have electrostatic repulsion between them, when electrostatic attraction and electrostatic repulsion When the action reaches equilibrium, an ionic bond is formed, that is, a chemical bond formed between the positive ion and the negative ion due to electrostatic attraction.

Ionic Bond

The ion may be a single ion such as Na + or Cl  or may be formed by a radical:

Wait. It is often formed between a metal and non-metal. The electrons are often atoms of metal elements, while the electrons are often atoms of non-metal elements. Usually, lively metal and lively

The metal forms an ionic bond, and when a metal such as potassium, sodium, or calcium is combined with a non- metal such as chlorine or bromine, an ionic bond can be formed. And only when the overall energy level drops, the reaction takes place (the atoms joined by chemical bonds have lower energy levels than free atoms). The more the drop, the stronger the bond formed.

In reality, there is no “pure” ionic bond between atoms. All of the bonds have more or less covalent bonds. The higher the electrical average between the bonding atoms, the lower the ion bond component.

The bonding strength of the ionic bond is large, so the ionic crystal has high hardness, high strength, small thermal expansion coefficient, and large brittleness. It is difficult for ion-bonded species to generate electrons that can move freely, so ionic crystals are good insulators.

In ionic bond bonding, since the outer electrons of ions are relatively tightly bound, the energy of visible light is generally insufficient to be excited and thus does not absorb visible light, so typical ionic crystals are colorless and transparent. Compounds such as Al 2 O 3, MgO, TiO2, and NaCl are all ionic bonds.

When the positively charged element atoms and the negatively charged element atoms in the periodic table are in contact with each other, the former loses the outermost valence electrons and becomes positively charged.

Positive ions, which get electrons into negatively charged, full-shell negative ions. The positive and negative ions are attracted to each other by electrostatic attraction; at the same time, they repel when they are in close proximity, and the gravitational and repulsive forces are equal to form a stable ionic bond.

Ionic Bond

Studies have shown that atoms in molecules or crystals are never simply stacked together, but there is a strong interaction. The strong force that chemically cleaves between such atoms or atoms in the crystal (sometimes the atom loses electrons into ions) is called a chemical bond. The essence of the key is a force. So some are called key forces, or just called keys.

Take sodium and chlorination to form sodium chloride as an example:

From the perspective of atomic structure, there is one electron on the outermost electron layer of the sodium atom, which is easy to lose; the chlorine atom has 7 electrons in the outer electron layer to easily get an electron. When a sodium atom and a chlorine atom meet, the sodium atom loses an electron in the outermost layer, becomes a sodium ion, and is positively charged.

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The chlorine atom obtains electrons lost by sodium, becomes a negatively charged chloride ion, and attracts an anisotropic charge of an anion and a cation. With nuclei between, between the electronic repulsion effect equilibrium, the formation of a stable ionic bond.