Organic Chemistry

Introduction of Inductive Effect

Inductive Effect:-

Let me explain about Inductive effect.

  1. A covalent bond is formed by sharing of electrons

H … H  —->   H–H

  1. If similar atom involve electron pair remain in the middle

H  -:-  H

  1. If dissimilar atom involves electron pair shifted towards a more electronegative atom.

H -:- Cl     =>    +H -:- Cl-

Definition of Inductive Effect:-

  • Shifting of electrons in covalent bond from low electronegative atom to high electronegative atom
  • Always sigma (a) electrons are displaced (only occur in single bond)
  • It is a permanent effect
  • It is distance dependent (decrease when the distance is an increase)
  • It is two type which depends on the type of group attached.

Type of Inductive Effect:-

Electron withdrawing groups

-I effecting group, all functional groups are the cause -I group.

For example

-CHO (aldehyde group)

-OH (alcohol group)

-CO (ketone group)

-NH2 (Amino group)

-CN (cyanide group)

-COOH (carboxyl group)

Electron donating groups

+I effecting group

All alkyl Groups show this effect.

For example

-CH3 (methyl group)

-C2H5 (ethyl group)

-CH (CH3)2 (isopropyl group)

-C (CH3)3 (tertiary butyl group)

Introduction of Inductive Effect

Application of Inductive Effect

  1. Stability of carbonation
  2. Stability of Carbanion
  3. Stability of Free radicals
  4. The acidity of carboxylic acid
  5. Basicity of amines

Introduction of Inductive Effect

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