June 26 each year was designated as the International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking (International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking), often referred to as the International Day against Drug Abuse.
From 12 to 26 June 1987, a ministerial meeting on “Substance Abuse and Illicit Trafficking” was held in Vienna, Austria, with 3,000 representatives from 138 countries and territories.
International Day against Drug Abuse
The meeting adopted the “Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline for Controlling the Future Activities of Narcotic Drug Abuse“, and proposed to governments and relevant international organizations to carry out comprehensive management in future anti-drug activities, and proposed “love life, no drug use”. “The slogan.”
At the same time, in order to further arouse the attention of countries and regions on the drug problem, call on the people of the world to jointly resist the invasion of drugs, fight resolutely against drug-related criminal activities, and also commemorate this important international drug control conference.
At the end of the conference, the participants unanimously recommended that June 26th of each year be designated as “International Anti-Drug Day”.
This proposal was adopted by the United Nations. The 42nd session of the UN General Assembly in the same year passed a resolution to formally determine June 26 of each year as the International Day against Narcotic Drugs and Illicit Trafficking.
China’s Qing Dynasty official Lin Zexu’s destruction of the opium operation “Human’s cigarette sales” began on June 3, 1839, and ended on June 25, 1839. It was a historic anti-smoking anti-drug incident.
Today we are going to talking about Heroin. and know about what is the chemistry of Heroin.
Heroin(general name for morphine drugs)
Heroin, a general term for morphine drugs, is a semi-synthetic drug obtained by using morphine alkaloids as a starting point for synthesis. It is commonly known as a few, white powder and white flour. It is a refined product in the Opiate series.
Generally included are heroin bases (diacetylmorphine), heroin salts (including hydrochlorides, nitrates, tartrates, and citrates, but generally referred to as hydrochlorides) and heroin hydrates.
Heroin is extremely harmful to human physical and mental health. Long-term consumption and injection of heroin can cause personality disintegration, psychological metamorphosis and lifespan to be reduced, especially for nervous system injuries.
The original heroin was used as a drug to quit morphine addiction, and it was later found to have a stronger drug dependence than morphine, which is more addictive. Moreover, its addiction is the highest and most harmful of opioids.
It is considered to be a chronic recurrent brain disease characterized by compulsive continuous drug use and high recurrence rate. The mechanism is extremely complicated.
Heroin has become the most widely abused drug in the world today. Among all drugs, drug crimes involving the manufacture, smuggling, and abuse of heroin rank first. Known as the king of the world drug.
It has been recognized by the United Nations as first-class drug control, and it is also one of the most important drugs for monitoring and prosecution in China.
In addition, due to the proximity to the Golden Triangle of the world’s major drug-producing areas, Chinese drug users use heroin because of the Lord.
Therefore, drug users in China generally refer to heroin users, which is different from the widespread use of cannabis by drug users in Europe and America.
It should be emphasized that since the mechanism of action of heroin is far from clear, there is no effective way to quit, and the rate of relapse is extremely high. Once contaminated, it is impossible to quit.
Physical and chemical properties
According to the concept of heroin drugs prescribed by the United Nations, general heroin refers only to the conceptual drug type, not to the specific chemical composition, heroin.
The chemical composition of drugs is generally divided into two major categories, one is the prodrug, called heroin base (heroin base). The other is heroin salts, including heroin hydrochloride, heroinartrate, and heroincitrate.
Most of the illegally circulating heroin samples on the market are heroin hydrochloride, and a small amount of heroin base, heroin tartrate and citrate are extremely uncommon.
Among the four major producing areas of Shanghai Loin drugs, almost all heroin drugs synthesized in Southeast Asia (Golden Triangle), Mexico and South America are in the form of heroin hydrochloride, while heroin drugs synthesized in Southwest Asia (Golden Crescent) there is also a form of heroin hydrochloride in the form of heroin hydrochloride.
It should be noted that due to environmental, production conditions and the like, heroin hydrochloride is mostly present in the form of a crystalline hydrate.
Commercially available heroin due to various reasons such as cost and transportation (the main reason is generally considered to be weight gains, such as niacinamide, which is not within the scope of regulated narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
The appearance is similar to heroin, and the drug does not conflict, and Heroin is miscible, inexpensive and readily available, and has become a relatively common diluent in heroin samples.
It is generally not pure, including many other substances. More than 60% of the heroin seized in Guangdong Province has been added with various dopants, and more than one type, including lactose, talcum powder, cocoa powder, glucose, starch, and other thinners, even caffeine, phenacetin and other blends. A fake agent.
Other common dopants include quinoline, ephedrine, procaine, acetyl procaine, US House East, nicotinamide, phenobarbitone, phenacetin, phenolphthalein, chloroquine, N- phenyl naphthalene Amines, acetaminophen, antihistamines, fucordine, mannose, even calcium carbonate and sodium chloride, and the like.
Based on the convenience of habits and production, heroin doping in various regions often forms their own characteristics. To some extent, the analysis and detection of added components in drugs can provide a reference for drug source inference.
In the sampling tests conducted around 2011 in Guangdong Province, piracetam and dextromethorphan were used as sample dopants in Southeast Asia and Southwest Asia, respectively, and the detection rate of caffeine in Southwest Asian samples was much higher. 15.3% of samples in Southeast Asia.
The heroin pure product is a white powdery substance or white crystalline powder, transparent, and the pure product is extremely fine, and it is said to be rubbed onto the skin to disappear.
Due to the different processing methods and dopants, the color of heroin in illegal transactions ranges from white, grayish white, brown to dark brown or even black, and the appearance and content vary greatly.
Heroin has different molecular formulas due to the definition. The heroin base is C21H23NO5 and the heroin hydrochloride is C21H24ClNO5. The molecular weights are 369 and 405.5 (this value does not include crystal water). The melting point is 170 degrees and 229 to 233 degrees (depending on the purity).
The solubility of heroin varies depending on the specific composition, the heroin base is dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, and all heroin salts are almost completely insoluble. Heroin hydrochloride
Soluble in chloroform and dichloromethane, while heroin tartrate and citrate are insoluble, but soluble in methanol. If the chloride ion experiment is carried out, the heroin base will not change after adding the silver nitrate solution, and the heroin salt will produce a white precipitate.
The difference is that after the addition of the nitric acid solution, the precipitation of heroin tartrate and heroin citrate is dissolved, and heroin is dissolved. The precipitation of the hydrochloride salt is insoluble.
Heroin is obtained by acetylating morphine with acetic anhydride. In other words, standard heroin is a phenolic hydroxyl group on morphine C3 and an alcoholic hydroxyl group at C6 position.
The diacetyl product formed after being acetylated, at which time the heroin is in a protoplast state. After acidification (usually hydrochloric acid, citric acid, tartaric acid or nitric acid can also be used, but the latter three are generally not used in view of cost and oxidizing problems).
Heroin hydrochloride can also be obtained by acetylation of morphine hydrochloride and acetic anhydride.
Common purification methods in the laboratory include solid phase extraction, ultrasonic extraction, organic solvent extraction, and short column chromatography. However, if the product is subjected to a chloroform solvent in the form of an aqueous solution, the pH control is very important, and it is generally controlled at 8.5 to 9.5.
Excessive abuse of heroin can cause a series of symptoms of poisoning, including inhibition of respiratory depression, slow heart rate, dilated pupils, weak pulse, decreased blood pressure, cold skin, decreased body temperature, systemic purple, coma, oliguria or urinary retention. When the serum concentration of heroin reaches 0.3mg/L, it can be poisoned, acute
The most prominent symptoms of heroin poisoning are coma, needle-like pupil, and respiratory depression, which are called “triple syndrome”. A few minutes after the occurrence of the triad, you can die without timely rescue. The lethal dose is presumed to be 240mg/kg (abdominal), 40mg/ Kg (intravenous). It should be noted that heroin poisoning is not only manifested in acute poisoning, but also terrible is the long-term effect.
Heroin abuse not only causes serious cardiovascular system, nervous system, immune system, respiratory system, reproductive system, and endocrine system and other organs and organs.
Acute and chronic poisoning damage, and can lead to a series of psychological damages such as anxiety, depression, depression, irritability, inferiority, emotional disorders, etc., which are related to the drug use dose, drug use period, abuse mode and number of relapses.
Studies have shown that the incidence of depressive symptoms in heroin-dependent detoxification treatments exceeds 80%, with moderate depression and severe depression each accounting for 40%. International Day against Drug Abuse
In addition, negative emotions such as anxiety and depression not only increase the difficulty of diagnosis and treatment but also significantly affect the mental health of the smoker and reduce the quality of life.
Dependence and relapse
Heroin dependence refers to the abuse of opioids such as heroin in non-medical destinations caused by any cause. The abuse of individuals forms pharmacological and toxicological psychological dependence and physiology in the process of compulsive repeated use of drugs that are difficult to make.
Dependent (physical dependence), once discontinued medication can appear withdrawal symptoms and signs so that the abused individual is in a chronic poisoning state of opioid drugs.
Physiological dependence, also known as physical dependence, heroin smokers repeatedly use poison to make the body in a state of adaptation.
Once interrupted, it produces a series of strong withdrawal symptoms, such as yawning, tearing, blowing nose, sweating, palpitation, irritability, chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, bone and muscle soreness, decreased libido, etc.
After about 36 hours, the reaction is intensified, the whole body feels extremely cold, trembling, the feet are involuntarily scurrying, rolling on the ground, incontinence sometimes, it is caught in the body, and sometimes it hits the wall with its head and can last for several days. Later, the body fell into extreme weakness. International Day against Drug Abuse
In this process, symptoms such as fever and dehydration may occur, and severe cases may cause convulsions, respiratory failure, and death.
In order to avoid withdrawal reaction, the smoker must use drugs regularly, and continue to increase the dose, and cannot be separated from drugs.
The timing and severity of physical dependence are related to the health status, psychological characteristics, years of drug use, dose of drug use, mode of abuse, and frequency of use.
Long-term, high-dose, high-frequency, drug-using drugs by injection, body dependence is more significant, and the withdrawal symptoms are more prominent.
Psychological dependence, also known as mental dependence, is commonly known as “heart addiction”, that is, the drug’s strong desire for drugs and the tendency to sputum after drug abuse.
When heroin enters the human body, it will give people a special feeling of euphoria and a comfortable and comfortable inner feeling, and a strong desire to medicate, driving the smuggler to seek and use drugs desperately to obtain psychological satisfaction.
And avoid mental discomfort. Many smokers commit suicide in the absence of economic resources to purchase drugs, use drugs, or die from serious complications caused by severe physical withdrawal reactions, or suffer from unbearable pain.
Moreover, in the process of long-term drug abuse, the personality of the smoker is distorted, the normal outlook on life, worldview, and ethics are destroyed, and the “dependent personality” of drugs is gradually formed.
It is manifested in the lack of attention and enthusiasm for society. The passion of life, thinking becomes narrow and lazy, as human independence, creativity and initiative are generally lower than ordinary people, just want to evade reality by taking drugs.
Years of drug addiction experience and psychological variation often make them lose the trust and love of their loved ones and friends. It is difficult to establish good interpersonal relationships with others, develop their lack of willpower, and have no self-confidence and avoidance personality characteristics. International Day against Drug Abuse
One of the most frightening aspects of heroin toxicity may be due to relapse due to this psychological and physiological dependence.
A survey in Yunnan showed that after taking the drug out of the drug, the relapse rate was over 80% within three years. Other statistics are even higher, with reports that the relapse rate exceeds 95% within one year.
There are even reports that people with only a single digit in the country can support for five years without a relapse, and that no more than ten years of relapse has not been reported.
As for the excuses of relapse, there are many strange things, including strong and lasting spiritual dependence, bleak hopelessness, drug attraction, lust, anxiety, drug trafficking, no job, being looked down upon, trying, physical illness, etc.
In the first place, about 60-80%. For example, a survey report on 120 reasons for relapse showed that psychological dependence accounted for 75.8%, environmental factors (referring to returning to drug users and the environment) accounted for 60.0%, protracted symptoms accounted for 45.0%, motivation was impure (referring to the cause and determination of drug withdrawal) ) accounted for 41.8%, mental stimulation (referring to survival pressure, difficulties, setbacks and pessimistic disappointment when interpersonal relationship is not smooth, anxiety, depression, escapism) accounted for 26.8%, incomplete treatment 2.5%, the other 13.3%. Another study showed that relapse has little to do with age, gender, education level, occupation, duration of labor, number of drug friends, past criminal history, comorbid mental illness, etc. Whether there is a strong desire to quit drugs, whether there are other drug users in family members, and whether there are anti-social personality disorders.
The distribution of heroin metabolites in the human body is very special, mainly 6-monoacetyl morphine in hair, and mainly morphine in blood and urine. After injection of heroin, due to its own hydrolysis and hydrolysis of cholinesterase, it is rapidly metabolized to 6-monoacetyl morphine in the blood with a half-life of about 5. International Day against Drug Abuse
In minutes, complete conversion within 10-15 minutes, 6-monoacetylmorphine continues to be deacetylated to morphine, with a half-life of about 5-25 minutes, typically no longer than 40 minutes. In liver and other tissues, 6-monoacetylmorphine is converted to morphine at a slower rate, with complete conversion in about a few hours. Due to the special role of 6-monoacetylmorphine, it can be used as strong evidence for the detection of heroin abuse.
Morphine is mainly converted to morphine-3-β-glucric acid and part of morphine-6-β-glucuronide in the body. In the rapid death of heroin, the concentration of 6-monoacetylmorphine in the blood was higher, and the probability of detection was higher, while the concentration of 6-monoacetylmorphine in the urine was lower.
The free form of morphine in the blood accounted for the whole morphine. About 75% of the time; in the period after the death of heroin injection, free morphine in the blood accounted for about 31% of total morphine.
For a death caused by the injection of heroin, the distribution of morphine in the body after 8-9 hours of death showed that the content of free morphine in the stomach and urine accounted for less than 30% of total morphine, and free morphine in the liver, brain, lung and heart capsule.
The percentage of total morphine is 30%-60%. In the spleen, right thigh muscle, ventricular blood, right thigh vein blood, free morphine accounts for 61%-90% of total morphine, and free morphine in right kidney and brain accounts for 91%. There are many.
These morphines are mainly excreted in a combined state, of which 60%-75% is morphine-3-β-glucuronide, about 33% is morphine-6-β-glucuronide, and only 2%-18% is free. Morphine, in which the content of morphine-6-beta-glucuronide is related to the manner in which morphine is ingested and the duration of morphine consumption.
Injection of 6mg dose of heroin, the concentration of urinary morphine reached a peak of 3316ng/mL-12022ng/mL after about 3-4 hours, during the first urination
Most of the 6-monoacetylmorphine was vented, with a maximum concentration of about 50 ng/mL to 236 ng/mL. After oral administration of 10 mg of heroin, the concentration of morphine in the urine was about 4317 ng/mL-12580 ng/mL within 2-9 hours, and no 6-monoacetylmorphine was excreted. When the concentration of whole morphine peaked, the concentration of free morphine also reached. The maximum value is about 4-24% of total morphine. International Day against Drug Abuse
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A substance similar to morphine in the human brain is called endorphin, which not only has a 10-fold stronger sedative effect than morphine but also directly or indirectly excites serotonin neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, respectively. Promotes the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine, and secretes dihydroxy
Phenylalanine. Dihydroxyphenylalanine and endorphin can bring pleasure to people, which is also one of the sources of “happiness” in the chemical field.
The endogenous opioid polypeptide in the body under normal physiological conditions regulates the normal functions of the dopaminergic system, the serotoninergic system, the cholinergic system, the histamine system, and the ion channel through various signaling systems to maintain the internal function. The environment is stable.
As exogenous heroin enters the human body, it binds to the opioid receptor, closes the Ca 2+ channel, opens the K + channel, increases the permeability of K +, inhibits the nucleus of the nucleus and the dinucleus. Phenylalanine and endorphin, which enter the blood in a short time, greatly enhance oxygen supply, greatly improve the body’s strength and excitement, and produce a sense of pleasure.
However, when this effect disappears, that is, when the body is in the withdrawal state, the inhibitory effect on the system neurons is reduced, and the parts of the locus nucleus are suddenly active and the discharge is increased, so that the release of dopamine and serotonin is increased, and the body is increased.
Insufficient oxygen supply resulting in blood oxygen, the body’s iron mass disorder, which in turn weakened the normal function of oxygen supply, then you must repeat the use of drugs to stimulate regeneration of oxygen in the body.
Over time, if you do not rely on drugs to stimulate, the blood circulation is in a state of stagnation, resulting in a variety of extremely painful symptoms, the smoker will feel the experience of death, and have to use drugs again. International Day against Drug Abuse
The motivational effects of heroin relapse are still unclear, and clinical studies have shown an increased psychological craving after withdrawal. The drug-seeking behavior of cocaine gradually increases with the withdrawal of drugs.
This phenomenon is considered to be the incubation of drug-seeking behavior, and the withdrawal response can enhance the motivation for a drug search.
A common cause of sudden death from heroin use is an excess of heroin resulting in respiratory depression and acute pulmonary edema death, accounting for approximately one-half of the death toll from heroin use.
Partial death due to serious complications, including long-term drug use, resulting in multiple damages to the heart, causing electrophysiological disorders, easy to complicated with endocarditis, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hemodynamics, and pulmonary edema, arrhythmia Heavy people often cause sudden cardiac arrest and sudden death.
The original complications were aggravated during the acute withdrawal period or a new complication was induced. Such as cerebral vascular rupture, tuberculosis spread, lung failure, induced seizure persistence, and other sudden death. Drug abuse combined with surgical diseases such as gastrointestinal ulcer perforation or bleeding, intestinal obstruction, gallbladder, renal colic, etc. caused severe water and electrolyte disorders or severe traumatic shock and other sudden death. International Day against Drug Abuse
Long-term drug use causes multiple organs and multiple system failures, resulting in sudden death due to cardiogenic shock. The principle of salvage is to establish an artificial airway and artificial ventilation, fully supply oxygen, correct hypoxemia, use special antagonists and actively prevent and treat various complications under the premise of early diagnosis.
Specific steps include immediate oxygen, suction to maintain airway patency, if the oral foreign body (food, dentures, sputum fluid, etc.) to be cleaned, if necessary, endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, assisted respiration.
Rapidly establish the venous channel, immediately give naloxone 0.8-1.2 mg, dilute with 20mL of normal saline, and then intravenously inject naloxone 2-4mg into 500mL solution (glucose or saline) until the patient breathes. Improve, recovery of consciousness.
If the breathing does not improve, you can re-inject naloxone or treat with respiratory stimulants. If you can’t resume breathing after the above rescue, or even stop your heartbeat, you should immediately perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and, if necessary, electric shock treatment.
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By the end of 2005, China had registered 1.16 million drug users, including 700,000 heroin users, accounting for 78.3% of the total number of drug users. According to the estimated number of drug users in the country in 2005, at least 27 billion yuan will be spent each year due to heroin use.
At the end of 2009, it reported 978,000 people, accounting for 73.2% of the total drug users. In 2013, it was 1.326 million, and in 2014 it reached 1.458 million (this figure is the total number of people taking opioids.
There is no clear distinction between opium, morphine, and heroin, but considering the distribution characteristics of drugs in mainland China, it can be considered that all or all of them are heroin).
Referring to the internationally dominant and implicit ratios, the actual number of people who smoke may exceed 7 million. A large number of drug addicts have put heavy pressure on families and society.
The sales of heroin, directly and indirectly, caused enormous criminal pressure. In 2014 alone, the total amount of heroin seized reached 9.3 tons, with a market value of several billion yuan. Behind this a larger illegal transaction and criminal behavior.
A survey in Xinjiang shows that in order to raise funds, 72% of men have criminal activities such as stealing, robbing, and defrauding, and 81% of women have prostitution. A survey in New Zealand also showed that 88% of smokers committed crimes every day.
Heroin consumption also increases the spread of the disease. For example, the earliest AIDS-infected people in China were drug users in Yunnan. By the end of 2004, 63.7% of the 89,067 HIV-infected persons confirmed by intravenous injection had been intravenously injected. Become the main way of HIV infection.