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Silver: An enemy of Bacteria

In the IV century, Alexander the Macedonian troops entered India. An epidemic of gastrointestinal illness spread to the lake on the shores of the lake, which, no matter how strange it is, did not deprive it of any power.


It turned out that ordinary soldiers used tin plates and cups, and their commanders were Silver. At that time, they also remembered that during the campaigns the King of the Great King King II ordered to keep drinking water in silver vessels. Later Roman legions started wearing silver armor.

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Silver has antibacterial properties. It is de-sterilized water, which also contributes to the rapid improvement of the wounds, without distortion.

However, it should also be taken into account that the high concentrations of silver have a toxic effect on the body.

The secret of water exhaustion has been revealed

Which water should freeze at the temperature? It turns out that it is not necessarily frozen, as it is less than 0 degrees Celsius.

As scientists say, the water can be very good in liquid conditions at the same negative temperature.


As we know, for ice forming, it serves as a particle or a crystal that turns into a nucleus ( crystal center ) around which the remaining crystals are formed. However, in very pure water, even in the absence of microscopic blends, ice is formed very difficult due to the thermodynamic feature of H2O.

So far, it has been accepted that the water temperature can reach the Celsius temperature below 0 degrees Celsius, even though the scientists suspected that the temperature in which the water should be cooled should be lower.

Scientists could not know exactly how fast ice is formed at these temperatures, making it difficult to accurately measure the properties of the fluid.


Chemists from Utah University, Valeria Molinero, and Emily Mur predicted a superficial water behavior at a microscopic level through computer modeling.

The program showed what happens with 32768 water molecules in terms of density and compression during cooling. After a thousand hours of computer time, a response came. the temperature at which even the purest water freezes absolute precision equal to -48 o C: As the water temperature approaches this bar, its density falls, and consequently it becomes easy to compress and alter the structure.

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As a result, every molecule easily joins with four other molecules to form a four-dimensional pyramid form.

Scientists called it “Intermediate ice”, which is in half the way of the structure of the liquid and ice.

These studies will enable you to understand how much liquid is present in the liquid and crystalline states in different atmospheric layers. “This is important for global climate predictions, including forecasts for weather conditions and areas,” says Molinoff.

Research results were published in Nature magazine.

IUPAC develops a new version of atomic mass

The International Union of Theoretical and Applied ChemistryIUPAC ) has stated that the atomic masses of ten elements should be expressed in a range, rather than a specific size. The purpose of this decision is to shift from the accepted and constant values ​​of atomic mass to the more accurate assessment of those values ​​based on natural changes in atomic masses.

It has been known for many years that the atomic mass of the element may vary depending on the number of its stable isotopes and its relative content.

The idea that elements can consist of more than one stable isotope already known since the early 20th century, and today these differences are taken into account in all laboratories around the globe, as well as in various fields such as food checks and geology.

Author of this innovation, member of the IUPAC Isotope Content and Nuclear Weapons Committee, Michael Berglund, insists that this is necessary only because reliable and accurate measurement methods are currently available.

He states that for an element such as lithium, the initial value of the atomic mass is only approximate. However, in practice, it is very hard to find any such atomic mass.

According to Berglund, now the truth can be revealed: the atomic masses are not constant in their nature. The first ten elements for which atomic masses are to be represented are intermixed as hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, and thallium. interesting chemistry topics for seminar and projects

Then they will inevitably follow the remaining elements. At the Commission’s 2011 meeting, elements such as helium, copper, and lead will be included.
Taylor Koplen, Director of the US Geological Survey Laboratory for Sustainable Isotopes, believes that this innovation will bring many problems, and in terms of chemical education, this can be “horrible.”

This can cause serious difficulties for teachers who will have to explain what a stable isotope is. IUPAC is currently working on a new isotope periodic system, where the atomic mass of the elements will be represented in the interval. Members of the IUPAC think that this innovation will be the year of the next international chemistry year.

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