Organic Chemistry

Interesting Chemistry Topics for seminar and projects II

Why Tomatoes are Red?

Everyone will answer, and what is surprising, tomatoes contain a natural dye (this color is a carotene), which color tomatoes, but it’s really true. interesting chemistry topics

Let’s get acquainted with the properties of carotene.

For the first time ever since 1837, Berzelius received autumn leaves, only seventy years later, chemists managed to obtain crystalline clean dyes from meadows, red peppers, carrots, and carrion red oil.

There are different ways to disable these dyes, but they are all dangerous because the amount of dyes is very small in plants and should be used in large quantities of various organic solvents.

Carotene is extracted mainly by carrot and red pepper powder from propriolin.

In order to turn off 1.5g. pure crystalline carotene, 5 kg of red peppers and dozens of liters of organic solvents, so they get a lot of nitrogen in synthetic form. interesting chemistry topics

Everyone will say, because the tomatoes are red, so it’s red, but it’s purple, but why tomatoes are red? It turns out that in tomatoes with carotene it contains the same compound: C40H56, isoprotein lycopene, which can also be turned off by tomatoes and synthetic.

Clean lycopene crystals are yellow-orange. The tomato peel, combining these two materials causes different shades of red color.

Why are lycopene and carotene colored? The point is that these two compounds contain many double connections that absorb a certain length of light waves and seem to be colored.

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Ink, from tea?

Is it possible to get ink from the tea? It turns out yes, but how? For that 2g. dry the tea in 50 ml hot water and boil for 30-40 minutes on a boiling water bath. Clean the solution, add 25ml of water to the solution and heat up before boiling and filter again.

Add two solutions and evaporate to volume up to 8-10 ml. It turns out to be a dark brown solution, with a solution of 0.5 mL of FeSO 4 * 7H2 O 20% of each solution to add 2ml of this solution. Here is the ink and add 100-200 mg of sugar to it.


It is possible to take the pen and write, but before writing, it is necessary to think of what to write, because this post remains for years. The point is that the ink has a magnificent property, it is very stable, it does not discolor in time and is not solved in solvents.

All of this is due to the ingredients found in tea with anhydrous acid, which causes a light-colored, light-reflective compound with iron (III) salts.

Sugar obtaining from beetroot

Everyone knows that sugar comes from sugar beet, but how do you try to get yourself?

Half a half kilograms of sugar beet well grated with the meat grinder and then grind the mortar. Take the extracted paste to a single bottle of vinegar and add 600 ml of 15% dead fat solution. Close the mouthpiece by the cork and periodically shake for several hours.


Calcium hydroxide neutralizes organic acids, causing unsolvable salts and simultaneously absorbs carbonates.

Pour the resulting juice into a glass jug, squeeze in a glass jar and add 400 ml of cold water to the solid residue, leave for about three hours and squeeze again in the same way.

Mix the juices together and slowly flow CO 2 (from the device). This process is carried out to neutralize the excess base caused by the crevice.

Carbon dioxide must be held to a neutral or weak acid reaction (check with litmus paper). Filter the mixture and dissolve the solution with a coarse layer. Coal solution dissolves and eliminates the smell.

Bubble juice should be moved to a glass tray and evaporate in the water bath until the volume fluid decreases 7-8 times. Leave the crystal. To accelerate crystallization, several crystals of sugar can be dissolved in the solution (as crystalline).

Half a kilo of beet can get 40 g of sugar.

“Shotgun” cotton

How to burn a fire, if there is no play and a dash.

Of course, everyone knows how old they were in the old days, having a dry wooden stick and a stone plate.

In mountainous areas and in the poles, fire can be obtained with the help of a glass lens, in the absence of a lens making a lens of pure ice.


It turns out that fire can also be obtained from ordinary cotton.

Take two cotton threads, each with a radius of 5 mm and a net (sheets) less than 1 mm. Make a wrap from one of the received cotton papers and roll it several times in the same direction.

Well-Rotted cotton should be reminiscent of an average of 5 mm thick and 5 cm long acne cords. The received cord tightly wrap the second cotton wire so that the thickness is 7 mm.

Place the horizontal horizontally on a flat dry board, cover it with another similar board, and roll it one by one across the board. After a few moments, when the smell of puffy cotton will feel, pull out the skull and divide it into two parts. interesting chemistry topics

Keeping the cut parts at a distance of 1 mm, rapid rotation will result in air mitigation, which will cause the air to blow in the air, resulting in a flammable cranial fire.
After a few seconds, smoke will be visible, and then a fire can be burned with dried leaves and wooden scrubs, that is, a fire without sparks and a fire.

“Prenatal without Manganese”

Purple salt, which is an oxidizer and decomposes during oxidation, is oxygen off, what is it? Ask a chemist with a little or no knowledge of the person and you will hear an answer, of course, the potassium permanganate.


However, there are salts that are correctly complied with above, but they contain not only manganese but also other metals, such as iron.

When we talk about iron compounds, we usually consider iron to form compounds with +2 and +3 oxidation degrees.

Pay attention to the elementary system of the elements, the iron is in the VIII group, so it must cause compounds to be higher in oxidation stages.

There is also the presence of iron oxide, + H2 oxidation degree, H2FeO4 salts, ferrates. Let’s get one of those salts.

Different ways to get them are known, but it’s easy to choose a way to get them off in a clean state, otherwise, it will be difficult to explore its features.

Mix 10 g of iron powder and a well-crushed 20 g of potassium nitrate (not to be cooked). Add the mixture into the melting pot, add 3 ml of alcohol and burn. Starts a heated reaction.

2 KNO3 + Fe = K2FeO4 + 2NO

The reactions are accompanied by the splitting of the sparks, so the mouthpiece should be closed with an iron plate, but not a clue, as it also cuts off the gas, which causes oxidized toxic NO2. Experience should be done in the trunk closet.

When the gluten freezes, dissolve its contents in 200 ml of water, a purple solution will flow out, filter it with glass cotton. At the filter will remain unconfirmed iron and iron (III) oxide.

Hold the solution for half an hour, disconnect it from Fe2O3, again filter with the same filter. Here is a solution of K2FeO4, but due to the good solubility of potassium fertilizer it cannot be disconnected from the solution (evaporating while evaporating), so it should be converted to a salt.

20 ml of hot water to separate glass BaCl2*2H20 and add potassium ferrate (VI) solution, will barium ferrate (VI).

K2FeO4 + BaCl2 = 2KCl + BaFeO4

Segment filter with glass cuff, rinse 5-6 times with cold water. Dry in a dry place, keep in a cool place in a well-ventilated vapor (moist air and heat dissipates).

Here is the purple salt, which does not contain manganese in its composition, but is similar to permanganate. To check whether the resulting salt is only the appearance of a similar permanganate, or is it similar to chemical properties?

To do this, it is necessary to check whether the received salt participates in the permanganate characteristic reactions or not.

It is known that potassium permanganate easily oxidizes the salts to the Cl2, which is used to obtain chlorine in the laboratory and how does your salt get it in this case?

Pour the test into 0.2 g of salt and add 3 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Lighten the mixture lightly, chlorine disconnection.

2BeFeO4 + 16HCl = 2BaCl2 + 2FeCl3 + 3Cl2 + 8H2O.

You know that potassium permanganate 2000C heat decomposes to release oxygen (oxygen receiving laboratory method).

2KMnO4 = K2MnO4 + MO2 + O2

Take 1 g of ferric in the test and heat in the sternum, and within a minute you place it in a drowning cloth, it will immediately flare up. interesting chemistry topics

4BaFeO4 = 4BaO + 2Fe2O3 + O2

Thus, iron oxide salt is not a bad oxidizer, even as an oxidizer it is stronger, it is not necessary to prove that all the filtering processes were carried out not by the usual filter, but by the glass cloth.


  1. Chemistry and Life. 1985, И 2, ст 72
    2. Chemistry and Life. 1989, И 3, ст 78
    3. Иванова М. A., Cononova M. A. Chemicalistic Demonstration Experiment. M. Vysshaya school, 1969

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