The greenhouse effect, also known as the “Flower House Effect”, is a common name for the effect of atmospheric insulation.
Atmospheric make solar shortwave radiation reaches the ground, but the surface after a large number of long-wave heat emitted outward heat radiation was atmospheric absorption, so that the surface and lower atmosphere temperature effect similar greenhouse crops, greenhouse named.
Since the industrial revolution, the heat-absorbing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide emitted by humans into the atmosphere have increased year by year, and the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere has also increased.
This has caused a series of problems that have attracted the attention of countries around the world.
Greenhouse Gases Effects
The greenhouse effect refers to the insulation effect of the sealed space that transmits sunlight due to lack of heat exchange with the outside world.
That is, the short-wave radiation of the sun can be injected into the ground through the atmosphere, while the long-wave radiation emitted by the ground after warming is absorbed by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Absorbed to produce the effect of Atmospheric Warming. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is like a thick layer of glass, turning the earth into a big warm room.
If there is no atmosphere, the average surface temperature will drop to -23°C, while the actual surface average temperature is 15°C, which means that the greenhouse effect increases the surface temperature by 38°C.
The increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the Atmosphere prevents the loss of heat from the Earth and causes a sensible increase in the temperature of the Earth. This is known as the “Greenhouse Effect”.
In the world, any object in the universe radiates electromagnetic waves. The higher the temperature of the object, the shorter the wavelength of the radiation.
The surface temperature of the sun is about 6000K, and it emits a short electromagnetic wavelength called solar short-wave radiation (including visible light from purple to red).
While the ground is warming up by receiving short-wave radiation from the sun, it also radiates electromagnetic waves outward and cools. The electromagnetic wavelength emitted by the Earth is longer because of the lower temperature, which is called ground long-wave radiation.
Short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation experience differently when passing through the Earth’s atmosphere: the atmosphere is almost transparent to solar short-wave radiation, but strongly absorbs long-wave radiation from the ground.
While the atmosphere absorbs long-wave radiation from the ground, it also radiates long-wavelength radiation of longer wavelengths (because the temperature of the atmosphere is lower than the ground).
The part that reaches down to the ground is called back radiation. When the ground receives back radiation, it will heat up, or the atmosphere will heat the ground. This is the principle of the atmospheric greenhouse effect.
What are Greenhouse Gases
Not every gas in the atmosphere strongly absorbs long-wave radiation from the ground. The gases that act as greenhouses in the Earth’s atmosphere are called greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, ozone, nitrous oxide, freon, and water vapor.
They absorb almost all of the long-wave radiation emitted by the ground, and only one of the narrow sections absorbs very little, so it is called the “window zone.”
It is through this window that the earth mainly returns 70% of the heat obtained from the sun to space in the form of long-wave radiation, thereby maintaining the ground temperature unchanged.
The greenhouse effect is mainly because human activities increase the quantity and variety of greenhouse gases. Let this 70% drop, leaving the remaining heat to warm the earth.
However, greenhouse gases such as CO2 have a very strong ability to absorb long-wave radiation from the ground, but they are rarely present in the atmosphere.
If the atmospheric state with a pressure of one atmosphere and a temperature of 0 °C is called a standard state, then the entire atmosphere of the earth is compressed to this standard state, and its thickness is 8,000 meters.
At present, the content of CO 2 in the atmosphere is 355 ppm, which is 355 parts per million, and it is converted to a standard state, which will be 2.8 m thick. This is 2.8 meters thick in the 8000 m thick atmosphere.
The methane content is 1.7 ppm, correspondingly 1.4 cm thick. The ozone concentration is 400 ppb (ppb is one-thousandth of ppm) and is only 3 mm thick after conversion.
Nitrous oxide is 310 ppb and 2.5 mm thick. There are many kinds of Freon, but the most abundant Freon 12 in the atmosphere is only 400ppt (ppt is also one-thousandth of ppb), and the standard state is only 3 microns.
This shows that there are few greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Because of this, artificial release, if not restricted, can easily cause rapid global warming.
As early as 1938, the British meteorologist Kalinda analyzed the sporadic CO 2 observations around the world at the end of the 19th century and pointed out that the CO 2 concentration had increased by 6% from the beginning of the century.
Because he also found that there is a tendency to warm the world from the end of the last century to the middle of this century, it has caused great repercussions in the world.
To this end, Kailin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in the United States established an observatory at 3,400 meters above sea level in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, in 1958, and began a sophisticated observation of atmospheric CO 2 content.
Because the island of Hawaii is located in the middle of the North Pacific.
Therefore, it can be considered that it is not affected by terrestrial air pollution, and the observation results are reliable.
From April 1958 to June 1991, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere of Mauna Loa was observed. It was found that the atmospheric CO2 content in 1958 was only about 315 ppm, and in 1991 it had reached 355 ppm.
The seriousness of the problem is that at present (1996), only about half of human’s burn 5.5 billion tons of fossil fuel per year (about 4 tons of CO2 per ton) into the atmosphere, and the other half are mainly absorbed by marine and terrestrial plants.
Once the CO2 in the ocean is saturated, the atmospheric CO2 content will increase exponentially. In addition, they also found that there is a seasonal change in CO2 content, which can differ by 6 ppm in winter and summer.
This is mainly due to the fact that the vegetation on the vast continent of the Northern Hemisphere is wintering and summer, that is, the plants absorb CO 2 in large quantities in the summer and thus reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
According to the determination of the CO2 concentration of air in the air bubbles sealed in the ice caps of the Antarctic and Greenland continents, the atmospheric CO2 content has been relatively stable for a long time, generally about 280 ppm.
It only began to rise steadily from the middle of the 18th century, before and after the industrial revolution. That is, it took humans 240 years to increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 355 ppm.
Methane is an important greenhouse gas after CO2. Its concentration in the atmosphere is much less than that of CO2, but the growth rate is much larger.
According to the second climate change assessment report (Report) published by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1996, CO2 increased by 30% from 1750 to 1990 for 240 years, while methane increased by 145% during the same period.
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Methane, also known as biogas, is produced when organic matter rots under anoxic conditions.
For example, paddy fields, compost, and livestock manure produce biogas. Nitrous oxide is also known as laughing gas because inhaling a certain concentration of this gas can cause facial muscle spasm and looks like a laugh.
It is mainly produced using chemical fertilizers, burning fossil fuels and organisms. The ozone content in the atmosphere, although reduced in the stratosphere, is increased in the troposphere, which will be discussed later.
Freon gas is a compound of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon; it does not exist in nature and is completely made by humans. Because of its low melting point and boiling point, it is non-combustible, non-explosive, odorless, harmless and extremely stable, so it is widely used in the manufacture of refrigerants, foaming agents and detergents.
Although the concentrations of Freon 12 and Freon 11 in the Earth’s atmosphere are extremely low, the growth rate in the past is very high, with an annual increase of 5%.
Due to its severe destruction of the atmospheric ozone layer, its concentration in the atmosphere is expected to gradually decrease from the beginning of the 21st century according to the 1987 International Montreal Protocol.
It should be noted, CO.’S2 concentration than other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, is less than CO.’S2 is much smaller, and some orders of magnitude smaller, but their role in the greenhouse effect than CO.’S2 stronger.
Therefore, their contribution to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, according to the IPCC Second Report, is only one order of magnitude lower than CO2.
If their total contribution to the global warming effect of the Earth’s atmosphere is small compared to CO 2before 1960, then in the near future, it will keep pace with CO2 and even exceed CO2, which cannot be ignored.
On April 2, 2018, researchers at the US Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory demonstrated for the first time that methane has led to an increasing greenhouse effect on the Earth’s surface.
The greenhouse effect is mainly caused by the excessive combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas in modern industrial societies, and the carbon dioxide gas contained in the exhaust gas generated by a large number of emissions into the atmosphere.
The greenhouse has two characteristics:
- The temperature is high indoors
- It does not dissipate heat
The glass nursery and vegetable greenhouses that we can see in life are typical greenhouses.
The use of glass or transparent plastic film for the greenhouse is to allow sunlight to directly enter the greenhouse to heat the indoor air, while the glass or transparent plastic film can prevent the indoor hot air from being emitted outwards so that the indoor temperature is kept higher than the outside world.
The state to provide conditions conducive to the rapid growth of plants. The reason why this effect is called the greenhouse effect is also related to this principle.
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Greenhouse gases effectively absorb the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth’s surface, the same gases and clouds from the atmosphere itself.
Atmospheric radiation is emitted in all directions, including radiation to the Earth’s surface below. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the ground–the troposphere system.
This is called the “natural greenhouse effect”. Atmospheric radiation is strongly coupled to the temperature level of its gas emissions. In the troposphere, the temperature generally decreases with increasing height.
The infrared radiation that is directed from a certain height into space is generally generated at an average temperature of -19 ° C and is balanced by the income of solar radiation.
The temperature of the ball surface can be maintained at an average of 14 °C.
An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases results in an increase in the ability of the atmosphere to be opaque to infrared radiation, thereby causing effective radiation to be emitted from the lower temperature and higher altitudes into space.
This causes a radiative forcing, this imbalance can only be ground troposphere to compensate for the elevated system temperature.
This is the “enhanced greenhouse effect”. If the atmosphere does not have this effect, the surface temperature will drop by about 33 degrees or more.
On the other hand, if the greenhouse effect continues to increase, the global temperature will continue to rise year by year.
Global surface temperatures have risen by 0.2 to 0.69 °C for 100 years since the nineteenth century. From the data of 119 years between 1880 and 1998, the global warming trend is 0.53 °C/100a.
Time-varying icing and melting of lakes recorded in various places such as Wisconsin and Japan over the past 150 years provides further evidence for global warming.
In 1946-1995, the freezing time of these lakes was 9.5 days later and the melting time was 8.6 days earlier. During this period, the average temperature rose by 1.8 °C.
Climate warming mainly occurred in two periods since the 1920s and 1940s and the mid-1970s. The global temperature rise has accelerated since the 1980s.
The global average temperatures in 1990, 1995, 1997 and 1998 after the 1990s have recorded record highs. The past 10 years have been recording weather since 1659.
The warmest 10 years since the northern hemisphere. In general, global warming presents a large regional difference, and the warming in high latitudes is greater than in low latitudes, and terrestrial warming is more pronounced than in oceans.
It is predicted that the global average annual temperature will increase by 1.5 – 4.59 °C in the next century, the temperature in the middle and high-dimensional areas of the northern hemisphere will increase by 5-10 °C, and the global temperature will increase at a rate of 0.39 C/l0a (0.2 -0.5 °C).
It will increase the global average temperature by 1.0 °C in 2025 and 3.0 °C by the end of the next century. The speed is the highest in the past 100,000 years.
Although the prediction of temperature increase is not the same, it is certain that the global temperature will continue to rise in the future.
According to the economics report on climate change published in 2006, if we only use the lifestyle of 2006, by 20100, global temperatures will rise by more than 4 degrees Celsius by 50%.
At the same time, the British “Guardian” said that if this temperature rises, it will disrupt the lives of millions of people around the world, and even the global ecological balance, eventually leading to large-scale migration and conflicts around the world.
So far, we have been unable to come up with effective solutions, but the next best thing is to at least try our best to curb the growth of emissions, and we must not rely on the development of life.
Therefore, we do our best to take countermeasures and try to curb the rising trend. International public opinion is also making continuous appeals in this direction, and research institutions in various countries have also proposed various specific countermeasures.
Fully banned HCFCs
In fact, the world is pushing efforts in this direction, which is the most possible possibility in this case. If the case can be achieved, the global warming up to 2050 will be estimated to have a 3% or so suppression effect.
Countermeasures for protecting forests
Today, the global forest dominated by tropical rain forests is being subjected to artificial and rapid damage. Effective countermeasures are to stop this uncontrolled forest destruction and implement large-scale afforestation work on the other hand and strive to promote forest regeneration.
The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere due to forest destruction is estimated to be about 1 to 2 gt. per year. If countries seriously promote temperate deforestation and forest regeneration programs, by 2050, the entire biosphere may absorb carbon dioxide equivalent to 0.7 gt. carbon per year. The result is the greenhouse effect of around 7%.
Automotive fuel Improvement
Japanese cars have been upgraded in this area, significantly improving the fuel consumption of the past.
However, in the United States and other places, perhaps because of the rich reservoirs, there has been no obvious improvement in fuel-saving design, and it still maintains excessive fuel consumption.
As a result, cars produced in the region have plenty of room to improve fuel design. The reduction in fossil fuel consumption due to this effort is estimated to reduce the greenhouse effect by about 5% by 2050.
Improve Energy Efficiency
To improve energy efficiency in a variety of other settings. In today’s human life, energy is used extensively everywhere, especially in residential and office heating and cooling equipment.
Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of improving energy efficiency. This is expected to achieve an 8% or so suppression effect on global warming up to 2050.
As a result, manufacturers and consumers may be encouraged to be vigilant when using energy and avoid unnecessary waste. And its tax revenue can be used for forest protection and alternative energy development.
Restrictions on Fossil Fuels
Once any fossil fuel is burned, it will emit carbon dioxide. However, its emissions will vary depending on the type of fossil fuel.
Since the main component of natural gas is methane, its carbon dioxide emissions are lower than coal and oil.
The same is to generate a thousand calories, coal must emit carbon dioxide equivalent to 0.098 grams of carbon. this is 0.085 grams in oil; if it is replaced by natural gas, only 0.056 grams can be discharged.
Therefore, some proposals have increased taxation in the order of natural gas, oil, and coal.
For example, in terms of production, coal with higher carbon dioxide emissions are taxed at $0.50 per billion joules in energy, while tax is only $0.23 for natural gas.
That is the higher the carbon dioxide emissions, the heavier the taxation of fossil fuels. As for the consumption situation, the tax rate is set at 23% for coal and 13% for natural gas.
Of course, at this stage, there is only such an idea. However, if it is put into practice, it is expected to provide about 5% of the suppression effect on global warming up to 2050.
Encourage the use of Natural Gas
Encourage the use of natural gas as the main source of energy. Because natural gas emits less carbon dioxide. Japanese cities have also generally switched to natural gas to replace liquefied gas. The case is to further promote this sport. However, the effect of suppressing warming is not too great, at most about 1%.
Exhaust restriction of Steam Locomotive
Since the exhaust of a steam locomotive contains a large number of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide, it is desirable to reduce its emissions, which can reduce the suppression effect by about 20% for the warming up to 2050.
Encourage the use of Solar Energy
For example, to promote the so-called “sunshine plan” and the like. Efforts in this area can reduce the number of fossil fuels and therefore have a direct effect on reducing the greenhouse effect. However, even if this program is actively promoted, it will have a suppression effect of about 4% for the warming up to 2050. The effect does not seem to be as expected.
Developing Alternative Energy Sources
Use Biomass Energy as a new clean energy source. That is to say, the organic matter produced by plants through photosynthesis is used as a fuel to replace the existing highly polluting energy sources such as petroleum.
Try to tap the potential of the ocean to absorb carbon
As the largest carbon absorber carrier on the planet, the ocean absorbs about one-third of human carbon emissions, reducing atmospheric levels and delaying climate change.
It has great capabilities and great potential. There is also a large area of “desertification” in the ocean, where there is little biomass in the sea.
In these areas, efforts can be made to generate nutrient-rich low-temperature deep seawater to the surface by using seawater temperature difference, wind energy or wave energy.
It can greatly promote the reproduction of plankton, artificially create a large number of marine pastures, and thus increase the output of fish, shrimp, shellfish, etc.
After they die, some of the bodies will sink to the bottom of the sea, which is equivalent to increasing the ability of the ocean to absorb carbon.
This is a very difficult problem. In short, those chemical energies are due to the fact that solar energy is very limited and cannot meet the needs of human society.
The thorough, simple, best solution
C-circulation on the surface of the earth:
From the photosynthesis of CO 2 in the atmosphere to the passage of C, the chemical, biological processes, such as the respiration of plants, the decomposition of natural decomposers, combustion, and the respiration of animals, become CO 2 and return to the atmosphere.
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It is equivalent to saying that each person excavates a mole of c from the ground. If it is not artificially treated, it will undoubtedly increase 1 mole of CO2.
Because the period of frequent crustal movement on Earth has passed, we no longer have to count on the earth to help us bury the C atom underground.