Glucose Definition:

Glucose, an organic compound, of the formula C6H12O6. It is the most widely distributed and most important monosaccharide in nature. It is a polyhydroxy aldehyde. Pure glucose is colorless crystal, sweet but not as sweet as sucrose, soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The natural aqueous glucose solution rotates to the right, so it belongs to “dextrose”.

Glucose plays an important role in the biological field. It is the energy source and metabolic intermediate of living cells, the main energy-supplying substance of living things. Plants can produce glucose through photosynthesis. It is widely used in the field of candy manufacturing and medicine.

glucose levels

Glucose Formula :- C6H12O6

glucose formula

Material structure

Physical Properties

Glucose is a colorless crystal or a white crystalline or granular powder; odorless, sweet, hygroscopic, and soluble in water.

Optical rotation

The specific optical rotation value of α-D-glucose at 20 ° C is +52.2.

  1. Solubility
  2. The maximum concentration of a single glucose solution at 50 degrees Celsius is 50%.
  1. Sweetness
  2. The specific sweetness of α-D-glucose is 0.7.
  1. Viscosity

The viscosity of glucose increases with increasing temperature.

Density: 1.544g/cm 3

Melting point: 153 – 158oC

Boiling point: 410.797oC at 760 mmHg

Flash point: 202.243oC

Refractive index:

1.362

Storage conditions: 2-8oC

Chemical Properties

It is the most widely distributed monosaccharide in nature. Glucose contains five hydroxyl groups, one aldehyde group, having the properties of a polyol and an aldehyde.

It is easily decomposed by heating under alkaline conditions. It should be kept in a sealed state. It is quickly absorbed after oral administration and is used by tissues after entering the human body. 

After 1kg of glucose is completely oxidized by the human body, 2870KJ of energy is released. Some of this energy is converted into 30 or 32mol of ATP. The rest of the energy is released as heat to maintain body temperature. It can also be converted into glycogen or fat by liver or muscle.

(1) The aldehyde group in the molecule is reducible and can react with silver ammonia solution: 

CH 2 OH(CHOH) 4CHO+2Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH— water bath heating → CH 2 OH(CHOH) 4 COONH 4 + 2Ag↓+3NH 3 +H 2 O

is oxidized to ammonium gluconate.

(2) The aldehyde group can also be reduced to hexahexol.

(3) There are a plurality of hydroxyl groups in the molecule, which can be esterified with an acid.

(4) Glucose undergoes an oxidation reaction in the living body to release heat

(C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 (oxygen) + 6H 2 O == 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O + energy).

(5) Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of starch under the action of enzyme or sulfuric acid.

(6) Plant photosynthesis:

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O (chlorophyll, sunlight catalysis) – C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O2.

(7) Reaction equation between glucose and new copper hydroxide:

CH 2 OH (CHOH)4 CHO + 2Cu (OH)2 – heating -> CH 2 OH (CHOH)4 of COOH + a Cu 2 O ↓ + 2H 2 O.

(8) Glucose is decomposed into water and carbon dioxide under certain conditions.

(9) Hydrolysis of maltose:

C12H22O11 +H2O— catalyst →2CH 2 OH (CHOH)4 CHO

(10) Hydrolysis of starch and cellulose:

(C 6 H 10 O 5n + nH 2 O – catalyst → nCH 2 OH (CHOH) 4 CHO

Glucose Preparation

  1. A sugar aqueous solution obtained by partially hydrolyzing corn starch with food grade acid and/or enzyme, purified and concentrated. The amount of D-glucose contained may vary greatly due to the degree of hydrolysis. Made from corn starch, it is called “corn syrup”.
  2. Glucose can be obtained by using starch as raw material and hydrolyzing with hydrochloric acid or dilute sulfuric acid. It can also be prepared by using starch as a raw material under the action of a starch scarification enzyme.

Compound introduction

Basic Information

English name: α-D-glucose

English alias: DEXTROSE; alpha-D (+)-Glucose; alpha-D-glucose; α-D-Glucopyranose; D-Glucose-12C6; Dextrose; Cornsugar; Grapesugar; Bloodsugar

CAS No.: 492-62-6

Molecular formula: C 6 H 12 O 6

Molecular weight: 180.15600

Exact quality: 180.06300

PSA: 110.38000

Glucose Isomers

Plesicose (allulose), fructose, sorbose, tagalose, inositol

Chiral isomer

Allose; altrose; mannose; gluose; idose; galactose; talose

Optical isomer

α-D-glucofuranose; β-D-glucofuranose;

α-D-glucopyranose;

β-D-glucopyranose

fructose

Glucose Storage

Under dry conditions, glucose has good stability and the aqueous solution can be autoclaved. Overheating can result in a decrease in the pH of the solution and caramelization.

Bulk finished products should be stored in dry, low temperature closed containers.

Chemical Reaction of Glucose

Verification of aldehyde groups

Glucose verification:

  1. The glucose solution reacts with the new copper hydroxide suspension to form a brick red precipitate. (Yellow precipitate is formed when the concentration is high)

 

CH2OH (CHOH)4CHO+2Cu(OH)2 – heating →CH2OH(CHOH)4COOH+Cu2O↓+2H2O

Note: (1) The new 2Cu (OH) 2 suspension should be used as needed and should not be placed for a long time.

(2) When preparing a new Cu (OH) 2 suspension, the NaOH solution used must be in excess.

(3) The reaction solution must be heated directly to boiling.

(4) Although the glucose molecule contains an aldehyde group, the d-glucose does not contain an aldehyde group.

  1. The reaction of glucose solution with silver ammonia solution has a silver mirror reaction
  2.  

CH 2 OH(CHOH) 4 CHO+2Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH)—  →CH 2 OH(CHOH) 4 COONH 4 +2Ag↓+3NH 3 +H 2 O

Note: (1) The inner wall of the test tube must be clean;

(2) Silver ammonia solution cannot be used for a long time;

(3) Heating in a water bath, not directly heated by an alcohol lamp.

(4) Sodium hydroxide may be added to promote the reaction;

(5) The silver mirror can be removed by washing with dilute HNO3 soaking.

The silver generated by the heating reduction adheres to the wall of the test tube to form a silver mirror. Therefore, this reaction is also called a silver mirror reaction.

Medicine Interactions

Precautions

(1) Intravenous injection of hypertonic glucose injection should pay attention to whether the drug leaked out of the blood vessels, so as not to cause phlebitis, the same complication can occur when the same site continuous injection of 5% -10% concentration of the drug solution.

(2) Treatment of brain edema when using hypertonic solution, such as sudden withdrawal, prone to rebound phenomenon and cause brain edema to occur again, it should not be suddenly stopped but should be slowly reduced until discontinuation.

(3) Should not be a subcutaneous injection, so as not to cause subcutaneous necrosis.

(4) Intracranial or intrathecal hemorrhage and dehydration in patients with sputum, it is forbidden to use hypertonic glucose injection to avoid accidents.

Expert Reviews

Hypertonic glucose, potassium, and insulin (30 to 40 mmol of potassium per 1000 calories of calories). From a nutritional point of view, the portion of the heat energy required for critically ill patients under stress should be provided by a fat emulsion and simultaneously supplied to the complex amino acid preparation.

Application Field

(1) Fermentation industry

The growth of microorganisms requires a suitable carbon-nitrogen ratio. Glucose is the carbon source of microorganisms. It is the main material of the fermentation medium.

For example, antibiotics, monosodium glutamate, vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, enzyme preparations, etc. require a large amount of glucose, and are also available. It is used as a raw material for microbial polysaccharides and organic solvents.

(2) Food industry

At present, crystalline glucose is mainly used in the food industry. With the improvement of living standards and the continuous development of science and technology in the food industry, the application of glucose in the food industry is more and more extensive, and the food industry is still the largest market for a long time to come.

(3) Chemical industry

Glucose is widely used in the industry. It is used as a reducing agent in the printing and dyeing industry. It is also commonly used as a reducing agent in the electroless silver plating industry such as the mirror industry, hot water bottle silver plating and glass fiber silver plating.

The application of glucose in the manufacture of chrome tanning agents in the tanning industry: chrome tanning agents are the best tanning agents for the manufacture of light leather (shoe leather, garment leather). 

It has been 100 years since it was made with chromium salts. The leather has the characteristics of high shrinkage temperature, good elasticity, resistance to flexing, washing, and durability. 

The chrome tanning agent is mainly basic chromium sulfate (basic chromium chloride can also be used, but the effect of the tanning agent is worse than that of the chromium sulfate). 

The preparation method comprises the steps of: reducing the dichromate to a basic chromium sulfate in a sulfuric acid solution by using glucose or sulfur dioxide as a reducing agent, thereby preparing a chrome tanning liquid, and concentrating and drying the mash to obtain a powdery chrome tanning agent.

(4) Synthesis and transformation

Glucose can be hydrogenated, oxidized, isomeric, alkaline degraded, esterified, acetalized, etc., synthesized or converted to other products. 

For example, hydrogenated sorbitol; oxidized to glucuronic acid, diacid, etc., and further prepared into calcium acid, sodium, zinc acid and glucono delta lactone; isomerized to F42, F55, F90 fructose syrup and crystallized Fructose; can also be isomerized to mannose (manufacturing mannitol raw material), in which sorbitol can further produce vitamin C, which is widely used in clinical treatment, and mannitol 15% is safe and effective in reducing intracranial Compress drugs to treat brain edema and glaucoma.