Global warming is a phenomenon related to nature. Due to the continuous accumulation of greenhouse effect, the energy absorbed and emitted by the gas system is not balanced. Energy is continuously accumulated in the gas system, which causes the temperature to rise and cause global warming.
Because people burn fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, etc., or deforestation and incinerate them, they produce a lot of carbon dioxide, that is, greenhouse gases, which are highly transparent to visible light from solar radiation and are emitted to the earth.
How Global Warming Works
The long-wave radiation is highly absorptive and strongly absorbs infrared rays from the ground radiation, causing the earth’s temperature to rise, that is, the greenhouse effect.
Global warming will redistribute global precipitation, melting glaciers and frozen soils, rising sea levels, etc. not only endangering the balance of natural ecosystems but also threatening human survival.
On the other hand, due to the increase in continental temperature caused by terrestrial greenhouse gas emissions, the temperature difference with the oceans has become smaller, and the air flow has been slowed down recently.
The haze cannot be blown away in a short period of time, resulting in increased smog weather in many cities, affecting human health. Measures such as car restrictions and suspension of production have only short-term and partial effects, and cannot fundamentally change climate warming and smog pollution.
Global Warming Definition
From 1981 to 1990, the global average temperature rose by 0.48 °C from 100 years ago. The main cause of global warming is that humans have used a large number of fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, etc.) in the past century and emitted a large number of greenhouse gases such as CO 2.
These greenhouse gases contribute to global warming. In the 20th century, the average temperature in the world climbed by about 0.6 degrees Celsius.
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The spring snow and ice thawing period in the Northern Hemisphere are 9 days ahead of 150 years ago, and the fall frost start time is about 10 days later. The 1990s was the warmest decade since the beginning of the 19th century, and the hottest years in the records were: 1998, 2002, 2003, 2001 and 1997.
United Nations measures after warming
In order to prevent global warming, in 1992 the United Nations specifically formulated the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was signed into force in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro in the same year.
Under the Convention, developed countries agreed to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and other “ greenhouse gases “ released into the atmosphere to levels in 1990 by the year 2000.
In addition, these countries with total annual carbon dioxide emissions accounting for 60% of global carbon dioxide emissions also agreed to transfer relevant technologies and information to developing countries.
The technologies and information that developed countries transfer to developing countries help the latter to respond positively to the challenges posed by climate change. At present, 197 countries have formally approved the above-mentioned conventions.
Reducing calorie emissions with a limited lifestyle: industry serves life, household goods are limited, and the industry is naturally reduced.
Reducing calorie emissions should be placed on everyone’s daily life habits, using fixed lifestyle habits, formulating fixed daily necessities, using fixed daily necessities, limiting the abuse of daily necessities, and using limited daily use of daily necessities.
Limited production, limited processing, thereby inhibiting industrial flooding and reducing heat emissions.
Hazard after warming
The hazards of warming range from natural disasters to biological chain break, involving all aspects of human survival.
There are some temperature records in the modern history of mankind. The sources of these records are different, and the accuracy and reliability are also uneven.
After 2000, high-temperature records everywhere were often broken.
For example, on August 11, 2003, the town of Grono, Switzerland recorded 41.5 ° C, breaking the record of 139 years. In the same year, on August 10, the temperature in London, England reached 38.1 ° C, breaking the 1990 record.
During the same period, the lowest temperature measured in the southern part of Paris at night was 25.5 ° C, breaking the record since 1873. On the night of August 7, Germany also broke the record of the highest temperature in a hundred years.
In the summer of 2003, Taipei, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Fuzhou all broke local high-temperature records, while Zhejiang Province, China, repeatedly broke high-temperature records, and 40 of 67 weather stations have recorded records. In July 2004, the rare high temperature in Guangzhou broke the record for 53 years.
In July 2005, two hundred cities in the United States set historic high-temperature records. On August 16, 2006, the highest temperature in Chongqing was as high as 43 °C. Taiwan’s Yilan temperature reached 38.8 °C on July 8, 2006, breaking the 1997 record.
November 11, 2006, is the hottest day in Hong Kong in November. The highest temperature is 29.2 °C, which is higher than the average maximum temperature of 26.1 °C from 1961 to 1990.
According to the Russian “Independent” on July 31, 2013, the “Academic Academy of Sciences” (PNAS) published an article saying that as sea levels rise, about 1,400 cities in the United States will be inundated by 2100.
According to reports, the conclusion was obtained by Benjamin Strauss at the Climate Central Independent Research Center. According to his research report, by 2100, global warming will cause sea levels to rise by 127 centimeters, and about 1,400 cities in the United States will face the threat of being overwhelmed.
In this research report, Strauss paid special attention to Florida and Louisiana. He believes that 2.7 million people in 150 cities in Florida and 1.2 million in 114 cities in Louisiana will be in great danger. In addition, areas facing threats of flooding include New Jersey, California, and North Carolina.
According to a study in the New Scientist magazine, the “floating method” can reduce sunlight reaching the ground by one-fifth. However, this method will also reduce the blueness of the sky, from the familiar blue to white. Ben Kravitz, of the Carnegie Institute of Science in California, said that humans can solve environmental problems by implementing geoengineering.
However, this practice can also have side effects. He pointed out that particles sprayed into the air are one of 0.1 to 0.9 microns in diameter and are responsible for reflecting sunlight back into space. However, due to the presence of these particles in space, the color of the sky will change from blue to white.
American scientists have found that ancient agricultural activities have prevented the world from entering the new glacial period. This shows that human activities cause global warming that may last for thousands of years.
Researchers say that prehistoric farmers who cut down trees and opened their first fields have changed the number of greenhouse gases such as methane and CO 2 in the atmosphere, and global temperatures have gradually picked up.
Professor Ladiman of the University of Virginia said: “If it is not the greenhouse gases brought by early agriculture, the temperature of the earth is likely to be the temperature of the glacial period.” Ladiman admitted that the results of the study are very controversial.
How Global Warming Affects Weather
The National Center for Atmospheric Research said on the 17th that scientists have predicted through two recent studies that even if the world’s greenhouse gas emissions are stable at the 2000 level, the trend of global warming and sea level rise in this century is irreversible.
Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research published two papers in the journal Science published on the 18th, predicting trends in global climate change from different perspectives.
Their results will be evaluated by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Experts and included in the next global climate change report released in 2007.
In the first paper, Weigel of the National Center for Atmospheric Research proposed a simpler mathematical model to understand global climate change.
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He believes that due to the “thermal inertia” of the ocean, the response to external influences such as greenhouse gases has lagged behind. The trend of global warming in this century is only the result of previous greenhouse gas emissions.
It is predicted that by 2400, the greenhouse gas components already in the atmosphere will at least increase the global average temperature by 1 °C; the continuous emission of new greenhouse gases will cause the global average temperature to rise by an additional 2 to 6 °C.
These two factors will also cause sea levels to rise by 10 centimeters and 25 centimeters per century, respectively. To curb the trend of climate warming, global greenhouse gas emissions must be kept at extremely low levels. Even if the trend of sea level rise is difficult to avoid, the 10 cm rise rate per century may be the most optimistic forecast.
The second paper published by Gerald Meyer et al. predicts that due to the existence of “thermal inertia”, even if humans do not emit any greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in this century, the global average temperature will rise at least by 2100.
At a height of 0.5 ° C, the sea level will rise by more than 11 cm, and the sea level rises more than twice as much as the scientists predicted earlier. Meyer explained that this is because the previous predictions did not take into account the effects of melting glaciers.
Mel’s team used two sets of mathematical models to simulate climate and sea level changes at low, medium, and high global greenhouse gas emissions using supercomputers.
The latest research by Chinese scientists shows that the ever-decreasing vegetation coverage on the Earth’s surface is inextricably linked to global warming. First, a brief introduction to this more scientific mathematical model is given.
First, you must introduce a few simple physical common sense:
First, mechanics Second, Joule’s law
The British physicist Joule did a lot of experiments. In 1840, the first thing to accurately determine the current generated by a conductor is proportional to the square of the current, which is proportional to the resistance of the conductor.
It is proportional to the energization time. This law is called Joule. Law. Joule’s law can be expressed by the formula
Q=I²Rt Third, the photoelectric effect
Light illuminates certain substances, causing changes in the electrical properties of the material, that is, the conversion of light energy into electrical energy.
This phenomenon of photo-induced change is collectively referred to as the Photoelectric effect. Photoelectric effects are divided into photoelectron emission, photoconductivity, and photovoltaic effects.
The former phenomenon occurs on the surface of an object, also known as the external photoelectric effect. The latter two phenomena occur inside the object and are called internal photoelectric effects.
Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect in 1887, and Einstein first successfully explained the photoelectric effect.
Fourth, the tip discharge effect Five, the law of electromagnetic induction Six, field distribution concept
In short, in fact, it is the four major mechanics of force, heat, light and electricity, modern physics and other theories, but also some knowledge about higher mathematics, geological tectonic plate movement and so on.
With this knowledge, you can understand the following words.
(1) Major premise
The earth rotates around the sun at the same time. The angle between the yellow and the red is 23 degrees and 26 points. Under the irradiation of solar radiation, the electrons of the surface objects are continuously ionized due to the photoelectric effect, and the negative ions formed rise with the hot air, making the surface With a positive charge, the charge is linear with the intensity of the solar radiation and time, that is, the sun is constantly charging the surface with a positive charge, and the negative charge is rising to the upper air. The entire surface and the atmosphere form a super large capacitor.
(2) How will the charge be distributed on the surface?
Since seawater is a good conductor, in contrast, the continental plate is a poor conductor, so the charge can flow rapidly at sea level, while the flow on the continent is relatively slow.
Due to the tip effect, the charge will be higher on the surface of the earth. Constantly gathered, therefore, the total current effect of sea level is zero, and the current effect will be mainly reflected in the continental plate.
In this way, a current and charge model of the Earth can be established based on basic parameters such as the distribution of the Earth’s plate, the detailed topography of the earth’s surface, the Earth’s rotation, and the angle of solar radiation.
The distribution can be calculated, and theoretically, the results can be very consistent with the actual situation. Depending on the accuracy of the parameter selection and the data processing capabilities of the computer.
(3) The current field distribution and the mechanism of geomagnetic field generation
When the earth side faces the sun, according to this theoretical model, if the external solar radiation is completely shielded, the trend of charge motion on the earth’s surface is to continuously move toward the tip zone, generating a current field 1, called magnetic field 1 (this current field and surface).
The distribution of the continent is related to the altitude of the mainland, and the current is isotropic, so the overall effect is zero, but it can affect the distribution of the geomagnetic field in local areas), at the same time, the surface is continuously discharged, so the presence of solar radiation In the case of the earth, the charge distribution on the side of the sun (mainly distributed on the mainland) is the highest in the east and the least in the west (because the earth rotates from west to east), so it forms a self-eastward direction on the side facing the sun.
The current in the west is called the current distribution 2. This current produces a magnetic field called magnetic field 2. It can be seen that the magnetic field is strong on the side facing the sun and the magnetic field has diverged on the back side of the sun.
The magnitude of the magnetic field generated by the charge as the earth rotates can be called the magnetic field 3 and the negative charge above the surface is also generated by the rotation of the earth.
Field 4, corresponding to a magnetic field, the magnetic field may be referred to 4, since the total amount of positive and negative charges are equal, the magnetic field and the magnetic field 3 4 overall effect is zero.
In summary, magnetic field 2 is the main source of the geomagnetic field, and the specific data needs to be modeled based on detailed data such as solar radiation and the distribution of the continental plate.
(4) How does the earth achieve charge balance?
The earth can be regarded as a supercapacitor. While the sun is continuously charging the 1800A for this supercapacitor, it is also discharging at 1800A (see Feynman’s physics lectures for the lightning average current of 1800A, which can be inferred that the charging current is 1800A).
Discharge is lightning, so the average current of lightning in the 20th century on earth is 1800A, and the current of lightning is from the surface to the sky, bottom-up.
Lightning needs to penetrate the air, so it occurs in areas with high air humidity, such as rainy and windy weather, and higher altitude crater zones.
The earth’s surface electric field strength exceeds 100V/m from bottom to top (see Feynman’s physics lecture). The electric field distribution should be from the surface to the ionosphere.
Therefore, it can be inferred that the earth’s supercapacitor contains a lot of energy. Since the amount of charge is large, why don’t we feel it? Because where we are at the same potential, the dry air is an excellent insulator, so do not feel anything.
(5) What problems will occur if the surface vegetation is reduced?
From the above points, the Earth’s large capacitance is a balanced system. For a long time, the ecological environment and vegetation cover on the earth is relatively stable.
Therefore, the water content of the earth’s surface is relatively stable. Therefore, the conductivity of the earth’s surface is relatively stable.
According to this theory, when the local vegetation is reduced, the conductivity of the surface decreases, that is, the resistance increases, that is, the internal resistance of the earth capacitor increases, and the charging power that is, the solar radiation is relatively stable.
According to Joule’s law, this has to a certain extent, increased the heat generation of the earth’s surface, which has promoted global warming to some extent.
(6) What will happen if there is a large amount of vegetation on the surface or a large-scale drought?
For example, if thousands of kilometers of vegetation disappear or drought, the large area of the earth becomes an insulator, making it impossible to flow according to the original current field and a large amount of electric charge is concentrated on the surface.
Due to the Coulomb force between the charges, the visual representation is that the surface of the land forms a crack, and the macroscopically shows the tension of the continental plate, and the energy form is the elastic potential energy. The longer the drought, the greater the amount of energy accumulated.
When the moist air moves into this area, the earth is re-established as a better conductor due to the wetness of the rain. A large amount of electric charge accumulated on the surface quickly moves to the tip, so the downpour is heavy, accompanied by a large amount of lightning, and the energy is quickly released.
Caused abnormal movement of the continental plate. This energy release is insignificant for the Earth, but it is destructive for humans.
It can be known from this model that the continuous reduction of surface vegetation is one of the main driving forces of global climate anomalies.
While the surface temperature is slowly rising, various abnormal weather phenomena are also occurring frequently, with complex interactions and more More detailed data, such as the atmosphere, ocean currents, geology, etc., can be used as a basic model of geophysics. Specific analysis of specific problems can also be extended to other celestial bodies and galaxies.
The large-scale use of fossil energy, on the one hand, causes greenhouse gas emissions, and on the other hand, a large amount of acid rain reduces vegetation, and the dual effects make the climate anomalous.
How Global Warming Affects the Ocean
Talking about climate change, sea level rise is very eye-catching news. In fact, the sea is not a plane. The sea level in different parts of the ocean is not always the same.
The ocean height between different oceans can vary a lot. What humans care about, what is observed, is actually the sea level along the coast. There are many factors affecting coastal sea level change, such as tides, weather, such as climate change, and the rise and fall of the land itself. Of course, different factors have different time scales.
Human observations of coastal sea level changes are very early, although the representation of early data is generally insufficient. The Mediterranean data is better.
It is observed that during the long period from the 1st century to the 1900th, the sea level change of the Mediterranean Sea did not exceed 25 centimeters or more, or it was basically stable.
During this period, the sea level rise and fall in the Mediterranean. The rate of change is basically between 0 and 2 mm per year. After entering the modern era, in the second half of the 19th century, there were tide gauges on all major ocean faces in the world, so there was monitoring data on the height of all oceanic oceans.
These historical data can be found in the obvious upward trend of sea level acceleration, but the data is not enough for quantitative analysis. The data record of the comprehensive system of tide gauges is
Starting from 1961, it was observed that between 1961 and 2003, the average speed of global sea level rise was 1.8+-0.5 mm per year. During this period, sea level was not a simple increase, but some years increased.
The year is lower. More comprehensive sea level data began with satellite measurements in 1993. Theoretically, satellite observations yield the most direct sea level observations.
From satellite observations between 1993 and 2003, the global sea level rise rate was 3.1+-0.7 mm per year, and the speed was significantly faster than before.
But this acceleration is only a short-term change, or there is a long-term trend, it is not good to draw conclusions. Judging from the records of Guanchai, the rate of sea level rise from 1993 to 2003 has occurred since the 1950s and is not unique.
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Like many climate issues, although the global sea level shows an overall upward trend, the sea level changes vary from ocean to ocean. It is observed that since 1992, the largest sea level rise occurred in the western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.
The sea level of the entire Atlantic Ocean is basically rising except for parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, but in parts of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the western part of the Indian Ocean, the sea level is actually Is falling.
If you are interested, you can pay attention to the location of a few small island states that are very powerful, and see if the problem really exists for them, is it really urgent? The situation is still very different in different island countries.
Cause Analysis — Human Factors
The dramatic increase in population is one of the main factors contributing to global warming. At the same time, this also seriously threatens the balance between natural ecological environments. With such a large population, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by itself alone will be an astonishing number, and the result will directly lead to an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The resulting greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide will directly affect climate change on the surface of the earth.
The growing environmental pollution has become a major global issue and one of the main factors contributing to global warming. In the 21st century, research on global climate change has clearly pointed out that the temperature of the Earth’s surface has risen since the end of the last century.
The change in sea level is constantly rising. According to the prediction of relevant experts, the sea level may rise by 50cm in the middle of the next century.
Failure to take and correct measures will directly lead to adverse consequences such as the destruction and pollution of freshwater resources.
In addition, a large number of toxic chemical wastes and solid wastes generated in land-based places are continuously discharged into the sea, major spills, and oils that occur in seawater, and damage to the ecological environment caused by human activities. It is the main factor leading to the destruction of the seawater ecological environment.
The main cause of soil erosion and desertification is inappropriate agricultural production. As we all know, good vegetation can prevent soil erosion. But by the current 2014
Human activities are still seriously damaging vegetation due to excessive deforestation for timber harvesting, land reclamation for agricultural production, and overgrazing.
Land desertification, 47,000 tons of soil was eroded. Soil erosion reduces soil fertility and water retention, thereby reducing soil bio-productivity and its ability to maintain productivity; and may cause widespread floods and sandstorms, causing significant economic losses to society and worsening the ecological environment.
Worldwide, the area of forests is being drastically reduced due to natural or man-made factors.
The impact of acid rain on the ecological environment has received increasing attention worldwide. Acid rain can destroy forests, acidify lakes, and endanger organisms.
In the 20th century, acid rain in the world was concentrated in Europe and North America. Most acid rains occurred in developed countries. In some developing countries, acid rain also occurred and developed rapidly.
The creatures on earth are a precious resource for human beings, and the diversity of living things is the basis for human survival and development. But the biological species on Earth are disappearing at an unprecedented rate.
According to the Global Environmental Monitoring System Water Quality Monitoring Project, about 10% of the world’s monitored river water is polluted.
Since the beginning of this century, human water consumption is increasing rapidly, and the scale of water pollution is constantly expanding, which has formed fresh water. The contradiction between supply and demand. It can be seen that the treatment of water pollution will be very urgent and important.
Growing toxic chemicals pose a serious threat not only to human survival but also to the ecological environment on the surface of the Earth.
Natural Factors — Volcanic activity
The periodic revolving trajectory of the earth changes from an ellipse to a circular trajectory, closer to the sun. According to a scientist’s research, the temperature of the earth has been alternating between high temperature and low temperature, and there is a certain regularity.
In the 20th to 21st centuries, the global average temperature experienced: cold → warm → cold → warm four times fluctuations, the total temperature
For an upward trend. After entering the 1980s, global temperatures have risen significantly. The average temperature in the Arctic in the 21st century has risen by more than 1.6 °C.
The global atmosphere and surface system is like a huge “glass greenhouse”, which keeps the surface at a certain temperature, creating an environment suitable for the survival of humans and other living things.
In this system, the atmosphere can both transmit solar radiation to the ground and prevent the loss of ground radiation. We call this protection of the atmosphere on the ground the atmospheric greenhouse effect.
Resulting greenhouse gases called “greenhouse gases” are short-wave solar radiation to visible light (3.8 ~ 7.6nm, shorter wavelength) having a penetration height, and reflected from the earth longwave radiation (e.g. infrared rays) having a height Absorptive.
These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and water vapor. The most closely related to people is carbon dioxide.
The global climate has been gradually warming over the past 100 years, and at the same time, the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically.
Many scientists believe that the increase in greenhouse effect caused by the massive emissions of greenhouse gases is the basic cause of global warming.
Humans burn coal, oil, natural gas, and trees, generate a lot of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere to warm the earth, make the carbon cycle unbalanced, and change the energy conversion form of the Earth’s biosphere.
Since the Industrial Revolution, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by 25%, far exceeding the full historical record of the past 160,000 years that scientists may have surveyed, and there are no signs of slowing down.
The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions is the root cause of global warming. According to the findings of the International Energy Agency, the United States, China, Russia, and Japan account for almost half of the global carbon dioxide emissions.
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The survey shows that the United States has the world’s largest carbon dioxide emissions, with an annual per capita carbon dioxide emissions of about 20 tons, and carbon dioxide emissions account for 23.7% of the global total. China’s annual per capita carbon dioxide emissions are about 11.73 tons, accounting for about 13.9% of the global total.