Glass is an amorphous inorganic non-metallic material, generally made up of a variety of inorganic minerals (such as quartz sand, borax, boric acid, barite, barium carbonate, limestone, feldspar, soda ash, etc.) as the main raw material, and a small number of auxiliary materials are added. Glass chemistry

Its main components are silica and other oxides. The chemical composition of ordinary glass is Na2SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2 or Na2O·CaO·6SiO2, etc.

The main component is a silicate double salt, which is an amorphous solid with a random structure. Widely used in buildings, used to separate light from the wind, is a mixture.

There is also colored glass in which a certain metal oxide or salt is mixed to exhibit color, and tempered glass obtained by physical or chemical methods. Sometimes some transparent plastics (such as polymethyl methacrylate) are also called plexiglass.

glass chemistry

Types of Glass

By process

Hot-melt glass, embossed glass, forged glass, crystal glass, glazed glass, wired glass, polycrystalline glass, glass mosaic, tempered glass, laminated glass, insulating glass, dimming glass, luminescent glass.

More and more people pay attention to the furnishings, and a large part of the crafts are made of glass.

By production

The simple classification of glass is mainly divided into a flat glass and deep processed glass. There are three main types of flat glass: the flat plate glass (with or without grooves), the flat plate glass and the float glass.

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Float glass is becoming the mainstream of glass manufacturing methods due to its uniform thickness, glass repair, flat top and bottom surfaces, and high labor productivity and management. There are many varieties of special glass. The following are the descriptions of the common varieties in the decoration:

First, ordinary flat glass

1, 3–4 PCT glass, mm is also called PCT or one in daily life. The 3-centimeter glass we refer to is glass with a thickness of 3 mm. This type of glass is mainly used for the frame surface.

2, 5–6 PCT glass, mainly used for small-area light-transparent shapes such as exterior wall windows and door fans.

3, 7–9 PCT glass, mainly used for large areas such as indoor screens but also with frame protection.

4, 9-10 cm glass, can be used for indoor large-area partitions, railings and other renovation projects.

5, 11–12 PCT glass, can be used for floor spring glass doors, glass room, and some large partitions for active people.

6, 15 cents or more of glass, generally less on the market, often need to order, mainly used for large areas of floor spring glass doors and exterior wall glass wall.

glass chemistry

Second, Deep Processing Glass

In order to meet the various needs in production and life, people have deep processing of ordinary flat glass, the main classification:

1. Tempered Glass. It is a kind of prestressed glass which is processed by the ordinary flat glass. Tempered glass has two major characteristics compared to ordinary flat glass:

(1) The strength of the former is several times that of the latter, the tensile strength is more than three times that of the latter, and the impact resistance is more than five times that of the latter.

(2) Tempered glass is not easy to be broken, even if it is broken, it will be broken in the form of particles without sharp angles, and the damage to the human body is greatly reduced.

Frosted glass. It is also sanded on ordinary flat glass. Generally, the thickness is more than 9 PCT, and the thickness is mostly 5 or 6 PCT.

2. Sandblasted Glass. The performance is basically similar to frosted glass, and the different modified sand is sandblasted. Because the two are visually similar, many owners, even renovation professionals, confuse them.

3. Embossed Glass. It is a flat glass manufactured by calendering. Its biggest feature is that it is opaque and is used in renovation areas such as restrooms.

5. Wired Glass. It is a kind of anti-impact flat glass made by embedding a wire or a metal mesh in a glass plate by a calendering method, and only forms a radial crack when impacted, and does not cause injury to the underarm. Therefore, it is mostly used in high-rise buildings and strong buildings.

6. Insulating Glass. The two glasses are kept at a certain interval by the bonding method. The air is dry in the interval, and the periphery is sealed with a sealing material. It is mainly used in the decoration project with sound insulation requirements.

7. Laminated Glass. Laminated glass is generally composed of an organic glue layer between two sheets of ordinary flat glass (which may also be tempered glass or other special glass) and glass. When damaged, the debris still adheres to the glue layer, avoiding the damage caused by the debris splash. Mostly used for renovation projects with safety requirements. Glass chemistry

8. Bulletproof Glass. In fact, it is a kind of laminated glass, but only the tempered glass with higher strength is used for the glass, and the number of interlayers is relatively large. It is often used in renovation projects such as banks or luxury homes where safety requirements are very high.

9. Hot Bending Glass. Curved glass made by high-quality flat glass heating and softening in a mold and then annealed. The style is beautiful, the lines are smooth, and the frequency of appearance in some advanced decoration is getting higher and higher.

10. Glass Bricks. The manufacturing process of the glass brick is basically the same as that of the flat glass, and the molding method is different.

The middle is dry air. It is mostly used in decorative projects or in light-transparent shapes with insulation requirements.

11. Cellophane. Also known as glass film, with a variety of colors and colors. Depending on the properties of the paper film, it has different properties. Most of them play the role of heat insulation, infrared protection, ultraviolet protection, and explosion protection. Glass chemistry

12. LED Photoelectric Glass. Photoelectric glass is a new type of environmentally friendly and energy-saving product. It is a combination of LED and glass. It has both glass permeability and LED brightness. It is mainly used for the indoor and outdoor decoration and advertising.

13. Dimming Glass: The power is transparent and the glass is transparent. When it is powered off, it is white and opaque. When it is opaque, it can be used as a rear projection screen.

14. Energy-Saving Glass: insulating glass, vacuum glass, low-emissivity glass, Coating Low-E glass, nano-coated glass, insulating glass.

Glass Ingredient

Glass is usually classified into oxide glass and non-oxide glass according to its main components. Non-oxide glass varieties and quantities are few, mainly sulfur glass and halide glass.

glass chemistry

The anion of chalcogenide glass is mostly sulfur, selenium, tellurium, etc. It can cut off short-wavelength light and pass yellow and red light, as well as near and far infrared light, and has low resistance and switching and memory characteristics. Halide glass has a low refractive index and low dispersion and is often used as optical glass.

The oxide glass is further classified into silicate glass, borate glass, phosphate glass, and the like. Silicate glass refers to a glass whose basic component is SiO2, which has many varieties and wide applications. Glass chemistry

Usually, according to the different content of SiO2 and alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxide in glass, it is further divided into:

1 Quarts Glass. The content of SiO2 is more than 99.5%, the coefficient of thermal expansion is low, the temperature is high, the chemical stability is good, the ultraviolet light and the infrared light are transmitted, the melting temperature is high, the viscosity is large, and the molding is difficult.

Used in semiconductors, electric light sources, optical communication, laser and other technologies and optical instruments.

2 High Silica Glass. Also known as vycor glass, the main component is SiO2 content of about 95% to 98%, containing a small amount of B2O3 and Na2O, the properties of which are similar to quartz glass.

3 Soda Lime Glass. It mainly contains SiO 2 content, and also contains 15% Na 2 O and 16% CaO. It is low in cost, easy to form, and suitable for large-scale production, and its output accounts for 90% of practical glass. Produce glass jar, plate glass, containers, and light bulbs.

4 Lead Silicate Glass. The main components are SiO2 and PbO. They have a unique high refractive index and high volume resistance. They have good wettability with metals and can be used in bulbs, vacuum tube columns, crystal glassware, and flint glass and so on. The lead glass containing a large amount of PbO can block X-rays and gamma rays. Glass chemistry

5 Aluminosilicate Glass. It uses SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 as main components and has high softening and deformation temperature. It is used to make discharge bulbs, high-temperature glass thermometers, chemical combustion tubes, and glass fibers.

6 Borosilicate Glass. With SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 as the main components, it has good heat resistance and chemical stability and is used to manufacture cooking utensils, laboratory instruments, metal solder sealing glass, and the like. Borate glass has B 2 O 3 as its main component and has a low melting temperature and is resistant to sodium vapor corrosion. The rare earth-containing borate glass is a novel optical glass with high refractive index and low dispersion. Phosphate glass has P 25 as its main component, low refractive index, and low dispersion, and is used in optical instruments.

glass chemistry

(1) Ordinary glass (Na 2 SiO3, CaSiO3, SiO2 or Na2 O·CaO·6SiO2).

(2) Quartz glass (glass made of pure quartz as the main raw material, the composition is only SiO2).

(3) Tempered glass (same composition as ordinary glass).

(4) Potassium glass (K 2 O, CaO, SiO2).

(5) Borate glass (SiO2, B2 O3).

(6) Colored glass in the process of ordinary glass manufacturing, adding some metal oxides. Cu 2 O – red; CuO – blue-green; CdO – light yellow; Co 2 O 3 – blue; Ni 2 O 3 – dark green; MnO 2 – blue-violet; colloid Au – red; colloidal Ag – yellow).

(7) Color-changing glass (high-grade colored glass using an oxide of a rare earth element as a coloring agent).

(8) Optical glass (add a small amount of light-sensitive substances such as AgCl, AgBr, etc. to ordinary borosilicate glass raw materials, and then add a very small amount of sensitizer, such as CuO, to make the glass more light. sensitive). Glass chemistry

(9) Rainbow glass (made of a large amount of fluoride. a small amount of sensitizer and bromide added to ordinary glass raw materials).

(10) Protective glass (adding appropriate auxiliary materials in the ordinary glass manufacturing process to protect the human body from strong light, strong heat or radiation.

For example, gray – dichromate, iron oxide absorbs ultraviolet rays And part of visible light; blue-green – nickel oxide, ferrous oxide absorb infrared and part of visible light; lead glass – lead oxide absorbs X-rays and r-rays; dark blue – dichromate, ferrous oxide, iron oxide absorption ultraviolet, infrared and visible light most; join cadmium oxide and boron oxide absorption neutron flux.

(11) Glass-ceramic (also known as crystal glass or glass-ceramic), which is made by adding crystal nucleus such as gold, silver or copper to ordinary glass, instead of stainless steel and gemstones, as a radome and missile head.

(12) Glass fiber (fibers having a diameter of several micrometers to several thousand micrometers drawn or blown from molten glass, the composition being the same as that of glass).

(13) Glass filaments (ie long glass fibers). Glass chemistry

(14) FRP (reinforced plastic with a strength similar to steel obtained by combining epoxy resin and glass fiber).

(15) Cellophane (a transparent cellulose film made of a viscose solution).

(16) An aqueous solution of water glass (Na 2 SiO3) is named because it has the same composition as that of ordinary glass).

(17) Metallic glass (glassy metal, generally produced by the rapid cooling of molten metal).

(18) Fluorite (fluorspar) (colorless and transparent CaF2, the optical instrument as a prism and a light-transmitting mirror).


In addition, glass is divided into: tempered glassporous glass (ie foam glass, pore size of about 40nm for seawater desalination, virus filtration, etc.), conductive glass (used as electrode and aircraft windshield glass), glass-ceramic, opal glass (for lighting devices and decorative items, etc.) and insulating glass (used as door and window glass).

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Classification of automotive glass

Car Laminated Glass

Laminated glass means that a transparent adhesive plastic film is applied between two or three layers of glass to combining the toughness of the plastic with the rigidity of the glass to increase the crush resistance of the glass. Ability to maintain visibility. Mostly used in car windshields. Glass chemistry

Automotive Area Tempered Glass

The regional tempered glass is a new type of tempered glass. It has been specially treated to maintain a certain degree of sharpness in the crack of the glass when the impact is broken, so as to ensure that the driver’s field of view is not affected. Mostly used in car windshield and instrument protection screen.

There are five main types of fireproof glass. One is laminated composite fireproof glass, the other is sandwich fireproof glass, the third is special fireproof glass, the fourth is hollow fireproof glass, and the fifth is high strength single layer strontium potassium fireproof glass. Glass chemistry

Of course, technology is constantly evolving, so the related aspects are constantly improving. The effects of different types of glass are different, so the related manufacturing processes and uses are different. This requires us to meticulously considered and analyzed.

glass chemistry

Raw Material

The main raw materials for glass production are glass forming bodies, glass adjusting materials, and glass intermediates, and the rest are auxiliary materials.

It refers to the main raw material introduced into the glass network forming oxides, intermediate oxides, and network outer oxide, auxiliary material comprises a clarifying agent, flux, opacifying agents, coloring agents, bleaching agents, oxidizing and reducing agents and the like. Glass chemistry

Production Process

Mainly includes:

1 Raw Material Pre-Processing. The bulk material (quartz sand, soda ash, limestone, feldspar, etc.) crushing the moist material is dried and the iron-containing raw material for the iron removal process, in order to ensure the glassy amount.

2 Batch Preparation.

3 Melting. In the glass batch furnaces or crucible furnace at high temperature (1550 to 1600 degrees) is heated so as to form a uniform, bubble-free, and meets the requirements of forming liquid glass.

4 Molding. The liquid glass is processed into articles of the desired shape, such as flat plates, various utensils, and the like.

5 Heat Treatment. Through the processes of annealing, quenching, etc., the stress, phase separation or crystallization inside the glass is eliminated or generated, and the structural state of the glass is changed.

Frosted Glass Processing Method:

First, put the flat glass to be processed on the workbench with thick or cotton blanket, then put a proper amount of fine diamond on the glass surface, buckle the diamond with a thick porcelain bowl, and gently push the bottom of the bowl with both hands.

It can also be ground with a grindstone for higher terrazzo floors. The grinding operation should be gradually moved from the four peripheral angles to the middle until the glass surface is ground to a uniform milky white color.

Silver Lithography glass Processing Method:

First, the flat glass is washed with water, dried and coated with paraffin, then carved into the paraffin and cut into various patterns, and the glass surface is etched with a 1:5 concentration hydrofluoric acid solution. Finally, pour hydrofluoric acid to remove paraffin, and clean the glass with water. Glass chemistry

Others such as colored glass can be processed by smearing or spraying methods, and the specific method is omitted. Elastic lines are placed on the ground and on the vertical wall to ensure the fixing of the lower wall structure and the skeleton column beam. The glass processing cuts the upper and all wood (metal) skeletons, glass installation, edging paint and cleaning.

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