Glass Development History
The world’s first manufacturer of glass for the ancient Egyptian people. The emergence and use of glass have a history of more than 4,000 years in human life. From the ruins of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt 4000 years ago, there were small glass beads unearthed. Glass uses
In the 12th century AD, the commercial glass appeared and began to become an industrial material. In the 18th century, optical glass was produced to meet the needs of telescopes. In 1874, Belgium first produced flat glass. In 1906, the United States produced a flat glass lead-in machine. Types of Glass
Since then, with the industrialization and scale of glass production, a glass of various uses and various properties have come out one after another. Modern, glass has become an important material in daily life, production and science, and technology.
More than 3,000 years ago, a European Phoenician merchant ship was loaded with crystal mineral “natural soda” and sailed on the Beruth River on the Mediterranean coast.
Due to the tide of the sea, the merchant ship ran aground, so the crew boarded the beach. Some crew members also carried a large pot, moved firewood, and used several “natural soda” as a scoop for the cauldron to cook on the beach.
After the crew had finished eating, the tide began to rise. They were preparing to clean up and board the ship and continue to sail. Suddenly someone shouted: “Let’s see, there are some bright, glittering things on the sand below the pot!”
The crew took the glittering things to the boat and studied them carefully. They found that these sparkling things have some quartz sand and melted natural soda.
It turns out that these glittering things are the natural soda that they used to make the pots when cooking, and the substances produced by the chemical reaction with the quartz sand on the beach under the action of flames.
This is the earliest glass. Later, the Phoenicians combined the quartz sand with the natural soda and then melted it with a special stove to make a glass ball, which made the Phoenicians make a fortune.
Around the 4th century, the ancient Romans began to apply glass to doors and windows. By 1291, Italian glass manufacturing technology was very developed.
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In this way, Italian glass craftsmen were sent to an isolated island to produce glass, and they were not allowed to leave the island during their lifetime.
1688, a man named Neff who invented the process of making large pieces of glass, from glass became common items.
Glass: This is the Sanskrit voice, not the so-called glass. He is also poetry, and the new translation is quite a set of Jia, a sacred, and a sacred sac, which is equivalent to the water (crystal) of this side.
For centuries, people have always believed that glass is green and cannot be changed. Later, it was found that green was derived from a small amount of iron in the raw material, and the compound of divalent iron made the glass green.
After the addition of manganese dioxide, the original divalent iron becomes trivalent iron, while the tetravalent manganese is reduced to trivalent manganese which is purple. Glass uses
Optically, yellow and purple can complement each other to some extent, mixing together to become white light, and the glass is not color cast.
However, after a few years, trivalent manganese is continuously oxidized by the air, and the yellow color will gradually increase, so the window glass of those ancient houses will be slightly yellowish.
The general glass is a random structure of amorphous solids (microscopically, glass is also a liquid), and its molecules do not have a long-range and orderly arrangement in space like crystals but have short-range similar to liquids. The glass maintains a specific shape like a solid, unlike gravity, which flows with gravity.
Isotropic Of Glass
The molecular arrangement of the glass is random and its molecules are statistically uniform in space. Under ideal conditions, the physical and chemical properties (such as refractive index, hardness, modulus of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, etc.) of homogeneous glass are the same in all directions.
Glass Melting Point
Because glass is a mixture, amorphous, there is no fixed melting point. The conversion of glass from a solid to a liquid is carried out in a temperature range (i.e., a softening temperature range) which, unlike the crystalline material, has no fixed melting point. Softening temperature range Tg~T1, Tg is the transition temperature, T1 is the liquidus temperature, and the corresponding viscosity is 10 13.4 dPa·s and 10 4~6 dPa·s.
The process of the glassy substance from the molten state to the solid state is gradual, and the changes in physical and chemical properties are also continuous and gradual.
This is markedly different from the crystallization process of the melt, and a new phase is inevitably present in the crystallization process, and many properties are mutated near the crystallization temperature point.
The glassy substance is completed from a molten state to a solid state in a wide temperature range. As the temperature gradually decreases, the viscosity of the glass melt gradually increases, and finally, solid glass is formed, but no new phase is formed in the process. On the contrary, the process of heating the glass into a melt is also gradual.
There are quartz glass, silicate glass, soda lime glass, fluoride glass, high-temperature glass, high-pressure resistant glass, anti-UV glass, explosion-proof glass and so on.
Usually referred to as silicate glass, quartz sand, soda ash, feldspar, and limestone as raw materials, after mixing, high temperature melting, homogenization, processing, forming, and then obtained by annealing. Glass uses
Widely used in construction, daily use, art, medical, chemical, electronic, instrumentation, nuclear engineering, and other fields.
Characteristic Of Glasses
Glass has different properties depending on the type. The following is a description of the architectural glass classification method as follows: Types of Glass
1, good perspective, light transmission performance (3mm, 5mm thick lens glass visible light transmittance of 87% and 84%, respectively).
The transmittance of near-infrared heat rays in sunlight is high, but the far-infrared long-wave heat rays generated by reflection of visible light to the interior wall and furniture and fabric are effectively blocked so that a significant “warm-room effect” can be produced. The net glass has a low transmittance to ultraviolet light in sunlight;
2, sound insulation, have a certain thermal insulation performance;
3, tensile strength is much smaller than compressive strength, is a typical brittle material;
4, has high chemical stability, usually, it has a strong resistance to acid and alkali salts and chemical kit gases, but long-term exposure to aggressive media can also lead to deterioration and destruction, such as weathering of glass. And moldy will result in appearance damage and reduced light transmission performance;
5, the thermal stability is poor, extremely cold and extremely hot and prone to burst.
1, Colored flat glass: It can be assembled into various groups and has the characteristics of corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and easy cleaning.
2, glazed glass: has good chemical stability and decorative.
3, embossed glass, spray glass, opaque glass, engraved glass, ice glass: according to the different process of making the pattern, there are a variety of colors, look, shine effect, rich in decorative.
1, Tempered glass: high mechanical strength, good elasticity, good thermal stability, not easy to injure after crushing, and not easy to cause self-explosion. Glass uses
2, wire glass: after the impact or sudden change in temperature, the debris will not fly; can prevent the flame from spreading for a short time; there is a certain anti-theft, anti-robbing effect.
3, laminated glass: good transparency, high impact resistance, interlayer PVB film adhesion to protect the debris from falling, wounding, durable, heat, humidity, cold resistance.
1. Stained glass: effectively absorbs solar radiant heat to achieve heat-saving effect; absorbs more visible light, makes the transmitted light soft; strongly absorbs ultraviolet rays, prevents ultraviolet rays from affecting indoors; bright and durable, and increases the appearance of buildings. Glass uses
2. coated glass: better thermal insulation effect, easy to produce light pollution to the outside environment.
3. Insulating glass: good optical performance, good thermal insulation performance, anti-condensation, and good sound insulation performance. Types of Glass
1. Do not hit the glass surface with force. In order to prevent the glass surface from being scratched, it is best to lay a tablecloth. When placing things on glass furniture, take care and avoid a collision.
2. when cleaning daily, wipe with a wet towel or newspaper, if the stain can be wiped with a towel, beer or warm vinegar, you can also use the glass cleaner sold on the market, avoid acid and alkali Strong solution cleaning. The surface of the glass in winter is easy to frost, and it can be wiped with a cloth dampened with concentrated salt water or white wine, which works well. Glass uses
3. Once the patterned frosted glass is dirty, it can be removed by rubbing the toothbrush with the cleaning agent along with the pattern. In addition, it is also possible to drip kerosene on the glass or dry it on the glass with chalk ash and gypsum powder, and then wipe it with a clean cloth or cotton so that the glass is clean and bright.
4. glass furniture is best placed in a relatively fixed place, do not move back and forth arbitrarily; to place objects smoothly, heavy objects should be placed on the bottom of the glass furniture to prevent the furniture center of gravity from falling overturned. In addition, to avoid moisture, away from the stove, it should be isolated from chemical reagents such as acid and alkali to prevent corrosion and deterioration. Glass uses
5. the use of plastic wrap and damp cloth sprayed with detergent can also make the oily glass often “renewed”. First, spray the glass on the cleaning agent, and then put on the plastic wrap to soften the solidified oil.
After ten minutes, tear off the plastic wrap and wipe it with a damp cloth. If you want to keep the glass bright and bright, you must always clean it.
If there is handwriting on the glass, rub it with rubber soaked water and then wipe it with a damp cloth. If there is paint on the glass, you can scrub with hot cotton vinegar. Clean the glass with a clean dry cloth and alcohol. Can make it bright as crystal. Glass uses
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1. In order to avoid unnecessary losses during transportation, we must pay attention to fixing and adding soft pads. It is generally recommended to transport in an erected manner. Vehicles should also be kept steady and slow.
2. If the other side of the glass installation is closed, pay attention to clean the surface before installation. It is best to use a special glass cleaner, and wait until it is dry to confirm that there are no stains before installing. It is best to use clean construction gloves when installing.
3. The installation of glass, to use silicone sealant for fixing, in the installation of windows, etc., also need to be used with rubber seals.
4. After the construction is completed, it is necessary to pay attention to the anti-collision warning sign. Generally, it can be prompted with no dry stickers or colored electrical tape. Glass uses
5. Do not collide with sharp objects.
1. Wipe the glass: first, wipe the glass frame with a towel, then wipe the diluted glass solution with glass, evenly apply the glass from top to bottom, repeat the above process, scrape it from top to bottom with a glass scraper, use Dry the towel and wipe the watermarks left on the frame. The watermarks on the glass must be scraped with glass, otherwise, it will leave a trace on the glass.
2. the vinegar and water in a ratio of 1:2, put into the spray, spray on the glass and then wipe, you can wipe very clean.
3. add 5% of the Ammonia solution or gasoline in the basin, use it to clean the glass, wait until the glass is dry and then wipe it clean with a dry cloth, the glass can be spotless, bright and transparent. When cleaning the glass, you can use different models of the window cleaner to see if it is double-glazed or single-layer glass. It is convenient, labor-saving and safe to use the window cleaner. Glass uses
4. if the surface of the glass is moldy, the ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) to water 1:8 can be adjusted (note: more than 1:8, will cause damage to the hand), wipe the glass. Note: Be sure to do corrosion protection work, the skin cannot touch HF, otherwise it will be severely corroded! After wiping the glass, wipe it again with water and finally dry the glass.
Glass is not completely solid
Glass is neither crystalline nor amorphous, nor polycrystalline, nor mixed. The theoretical name is glass.
The characteristics of the glassy state at room temperature are: short-range order, that is, in the range of several or dozens of atoms, the atoms are arranged in order, showing crystal characteristics, long-range disorder, that is, after increasing the number of atoms, it becomes a kind of The ordering state of the sequence is similar to the liquid. At the macro level, glass is a solid substance.
Glass is such a substance. The reason for this structure of glass is that the viscosity of the glass changes too rapidly with temperature, and the crystallization rate is too slow.
When the temperature drops and the crystallization begins, the viscosity has become very large and the movement of the atoms is limited, resulting in this result. Therefore, the glass state is similar to a solid-liquid, and the atoms in the material are always in the process of crystallization.
Therefore, the position of the atoms in the glass appears to be fixed, but there is still a force between the atoms to make it have a tendency to rearrange. It is not a stable state, which is different from the atomic state in paraffin. Therefore, it is also not a crystal. At normal temperature, paraffin is completely solid, and glass can be regarded as a liquid with a very high viscosity. Glass uses
Reveal the mystery of glass non-solid
In the experiment, in order to observe the real motion of microscopic atoms, the researchers used larger colloidal particles to simulate atoms and observed them with a high power microscope. It was found that the gels formed by these particles could not form crystals because they formed an icosahedral structure—consistent with the predictions made by Charles Frank of the University of Bristol in the 1950s. This structure explains why glass is “glass” rather than liquid or solid.
This study is a major breakthrough in understanding metastable materials, which will make it possible to further develop new materials such as metallic glass. In addition, if it is possible to form a glass-like internal structure by cooling when operated, it is possible to greatly reduce metal defects. (Science Network Mei Jin / Compilation)
(Nature Materials, doi:10.1038/nmat2219, C. Patrick Royall, Hajime Tanaka)
The glass surface looks solid and is not actually. For more than 50 years, scientists have been trying to figure out the nature of glass. A joint study by scientists in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan found that glass cannot be solid because of the special atomic structure that the glass forms when it cools. Related papers will be published online in Nature Materials. Glass uses
The main researcher, Paddy Royall of the University of Bristol, UK, said: “Some materials form crystals when cooled, and their atoms are arranged in a highly regular pattern called a lattice. But the glass is cooling. When the atoms are congested together, they are arranged almost randomly, which hinders the formation of a regular lattice.”
Glass uses: Emerging Technologies
Glass is an ancient building material. With the rapid advancement of modern technology and the ever-changing application technology, various unique glass has come out and thrived the glass family. Glass uses
An aircraft manufacturing company in the UK invented a non-broken glass for use on the airplane. It is a multi-layer glass with a crumb-bonded transparent plastic film. This polyurethane-based plastic film has a viscous semi-liquid consistency, and when someone tries to break it, the blown polyurethane film will slowly gather together and restore its unique integrity. This glass can be used in cars for anti-theft vehicles. Glass uses
Bulletproof glass is a composite material specially processed from glass (or plexiglass) and high-quality engineering plastics. It is usually a transparent material, such as PVB/polycarbonate thermoplastic (generally lexan resin) also called LEXAN PC RESIN). It has the appearance of ordinary glass and the act of transmitting light, which provides certain protection for the shooting of small arms. The thickest pc board can be 136 mm thick with a maximum width of 2166 mm wide and an effective time of 6664 days.
The glass successfully developed by Mitsubishi Electric Instrument Laboratory of Japan is made by mixing boric acid glass powder and carbonized fiber and heating it to 1000 degrees Celsius. It is made of hard alloy reinforced glass, it is maximum breaking stress is more than 2 times that of ordinary glass, no brittle weakness, nails, and wood screws, no need to worry about breaking. Types of Glass
The non-reflective glass developed by SCHOTT Glass, Germany, has a light reflectance of only 1% (typically 8% for glass), thus solving the problem of glass reflection and dazzling headache.
The glass developed by a Hungarian research institute is a multi-layered structure with extremely thin metal wires embedded in the middle of each layer. When the thief breaks the glass, the alarm system connected to the metal wire will immediately give an alarm signal. Glass uses
A Japanese company introduced technology from Germany to create a new type of soundproof glass. This glass is made of a soft resin with a thickness of 5 mm to bond the two layers of glass together, which can absorb almost all the noise, especially suitable for use in studios and studios. Its price is five times that of ordinary glass.
Air conditioning glass
This is a double-glazed process that delivers the heat to the glass interlayer and through the air holes to the interior instead of the radiator. This not only saves energy but also is convenient, soundproof and dustproof. In the summer, it can be changed to send air-conditioning.
The vacuum glass developed by Japan Flat Glass Co., Ltd. is a vacuum layer with a spacing of 1 mm and 100 mm between two glass sheets with a thickness of 3 mm. The layer has small cylindrical support in the layer to prevent external atmospheric pressure. The pieces of glass are stuck together. This vacuum glass is only 6.2 mm thick and can be mounted directly on a general window frame. It has good thermal and acoustic insulation and is suitable for windows in residential and high-rise buildings. Glass uses
The transparency of the glass developed by the United States varies with the angle of view. It has a special polymer film whose astigmatism, thickness, area, and form can be freely chosen by the manufacturer, and it can be used for protection. And shielding.
A holographic diffractive glass developed by a research team in Boston, USA, concentrates the light of certain colors into a selected orientation. Use this glass window to break down the natural light into a spectral combination and direct the light to the ceiling and reflect it to every corner of the room. Even in a room without a window, you can “get” the sunlight from the reflective wall through the air duct. The light is diffused by the holes to the ceiling.
A British company has successfully developed a thermochromic glass called Cloud Glue, a synthetic glass with a plastic film on both sides and a polymer water solvent. It is transparent in the low-temperature environment, absorbs the heat energy of sunlight, and becomes opaque white color when the ambient temperature rises, and blocks the heat energy of sunlight, thereby effectively regulating the indoor temperature. Glass uses
The University of Florida has developed a new bioglass with a combination of bioactive energy and active tissue. This bioglass is biocompatible and can be used in artificial bones and artificial gums.
A Japanese company has successfully developed a TV antenna window glass. The inner layer of the glass is embedded with a very fine antenna. When installed, the indoor TV can present a clearer picture.
Thin paper glass
German scientists have created an ultra-thin glass that can be used in optoelectronics, biosensors, computer displays, and other modern technologies. It is only 0.003 mm thick.
The University of Tokushima in Japan invented a glass that can record information. When recording information, the laser is concentrated on a point inside the glass with an optical microscope, and irradiation is completed in 30 picoseconds, leaving a recording spot, which is performed by laser scanning the spot when reading information. This kind of recorded information can be carried out at room temperature, and its performance is higher than the disc used by everyone.
Contaminated color changing glass
The California Air Pollution Observatory has developed a pollution-resistant glass that can detect pollution. When the glass is contaminated by a polluted gas, it can change color, for example, when it is contaminated by acid gas, it turns green, when it is contaminated with an amine gas, it turns yellow-gray, etc., and it is widely used for making pollution detecting materials and labeling materials.
Carbon dioxide glass
The Osaka Industrial Technology Research Institute of Japan Industrial Technology Institute has developed a carbon dioxide-permeable glass film that can be applied to the glass window of a living room to discharge carbon dioxide gas from the room. It has different amounts of carbon dioxide transmitted under different humidity conditions. The higher the humidity, the higher the permeability. Glass uses
Electrolytic atomized glass
Electrolytic atomized glass, which has the functions of scratch resistance, scratch resistance, comfortable and soft hand feeling, without sweat stains and fingerprint printing. It changes the cold and blunt perception of traditional glass. Its biggest feature is that after the electrolysis atomized glass is energized, it will automatically produce surface atomization effect, instantly change the transparency, and it looks like the ordinary white wall on the outside. Japanese transparent public toilets are the effect of applying electrolytically atomized glass.
Bulgarian building materials experts have developed a foam glass that has good biostability, does not rot, has poor hygroscopicity, is easy to process, and is easily bonded to other building materials. This new type of foam glass has been successfully manufactured on the basis of liquid glass with various mineral components.
The University of Tokyo in Japan invented a titanium dioxide- coated glass that prevents dirt and water spots from accumulating on the surface, achieving automatic cleaning and shock-proof effects, and can clean the glass window without any effort.
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