Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Equipotential surface: A surface on which the electric potential is constant is known as the equipotential surface.

Properties of an equipotential surface:

– Electric field lines are always perpendicular to an equipotential surface.

– Work done in moving an electric charge from one point to another on an equipotential surface is zero.

– Two equipotential surfaces can never intersect one another.

Conductors: Those substances which can easily allow electricity to pass through them are known as conductors. They have a large number of free charge carriers that are free to move inside the material. e.g., metals, human beings, earth, etc.

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Basic electrostatics properties of a conductor are as follows:

– Inside a conductor, the electric field is zero.

– At the surface of a charged conductor, the electric field must be normal to the surface at every point.

– The interior of a conductor can have no excess charge in the static situation.

Capacitor: A condenser or a capacitor is a device that stores electric charge. It consists of two conductors separated by an insulator or dielectric. The two conductors carry equal and opposite charges ±Q.

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