The role of demonstrative experiments in experimental chemistry is extremely important in understanding the major theoretical concepts of chemistry. The most important thing is when the student performs the experiment because the experience he or she is experiencing does not erase the memory. It is appropriate to recall the famous Chinese proverb. “Tell me, and I’ll forget, show me and I’ll remember, let me do it, and I’ll know.” Chemistry in our Lives

The following suggestions can be made not only at the school lab but also in the “home lab” because they are safe and easy to operate.

The time for apple harvesting

Depending on the purpose of the gathering of the apple, the harvest time may vary. If the apple should be eaten or cooked immediately, it should be fully ripe, and if it is harvested for a long time, the full ripe loses its taste quickly and spoils. To keep the whole winter fresh and healthy, you need to pick up the apple but not the full ripe apple. But how to determine the maturation phase?

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Maybe think about tasting. But is it possible to taste all the apple apples, especially because even the sweetest apples in the mid-twilight stage are almost lacking in sweetness, because firstly, the starch accumulates in the pre-maturing period, and during the maturation it is hydrolyzed, transforming into monosaccharides (simple sugars).

It is important to note that starch hydrolysis occurs unevenly throughout the apple. First, the hydrolysis begins with the nucleus surrounding the nucleus and then in the entire apple region.

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As a result, the ripe apple no longer contains starch. The oscillation and sucrose process is easy to control with known iodine-starlet experiment. It is known that the interaction between starch and iodine is caused by the iodine-ossicle complex of blue color. Chemistry in our Lives

In one liter of distilled (or boiled and frozen) water, 4 g of potassium iodide and 1 gram of iodine are then dissolved, followed by a cross-cut apple stored in this solution for 1-2 minutes. Cutting apples can be determined by removing the starch content.

If the content of the starch is many, then the cut is bubbling over the entire surface, and if it is less, the blue color is almost not noticeable. The fruit should be tested immediately by pulling it off the tree. By repeating the experiment 5-6 times a day, you can determine the time for the fetus to mature.

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Removal of clothing from clothing

How to remove a fresh stain of juice or berry from clothing. The grandmothers enjoy a traditional and reliable way of life today. However, this problem can be solved in a contemporary way.

What is the process:

In a 20 ml solution of boric acid (sold in pharmacies), 2 g of Ginatol can be added (1 g of citric acid or 1.5 g of malic acid). With this solution, rub the fresh stain with cloth and then wash first with cold and then warm water. The nutritional stain is well removed from the flax cloth.

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This process can be repeated twice to clean the cotton fabric. This method is not suitable for cleaning woolen or semi-old cloths, as the peptide bonds of molecules forming wool tissues are broken down by the effect of ginatotes, resulting in holes on the cloth. In this case, it is recommended to use the traditional way of grandmother.

And how to remove old spots:

In that case, a 3% solution of potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide should be respected. It is necessary to place a clean cloth and a pot of peppermint into a stain-covered cloth to dilute the stain. After a while, the stain and its surroundings are colored dark-brown.

However, do not think that the piece or the piece has been spoiled, as the brown hair disappears after a few times with a hydrogen peroxide infusion. By repeating the same process 8-10 times, you can completely remove the stain, then wash the clothes first with cold water, then by washing powder and warm water.

The removal of the spots in this way is due to strong oxides of potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, which undermine the natural dyes of juice and berries. However, they can also break down the dyes.  Chemistry in our Lives

For this reason, before cleaning colored fabric, in the non-visible part of the fabric, it is necessary to check the effect of these materials in advance. Chemistry in our Lives

How to prepare waterproof clothing?

Is it possible to convert the usual clothes to the waterfall? It turns out yes.

Here is a prescription. Two liters of water a solution of 300 g borax (Na 2 B 4 O . 10H 2O), 120 g Glauber’s salt(Na 2 SO . 10H 2O) and 80 g Dextrin (Bazmashakar, which is obtained from 180-200 0 C starch heating and well-soluble in water). The solution is mixed, put in the solution into the solution and kept until dissolved in solution. The solution is to remove the clothes without sinking and hang them dry. After drying, they iron out with a hot iron. Such clothing is even waterfalling under the rain, and this property can last for a long time.

About spicy pepper

Everyone knows that if the pepper is cut vertically, it is spicy, and if it is cut off with long stripes in the direction of the axis, it can even be sweet. What is the secret? It is explained by the fact that the composition of different parts of the pepper is not the same.

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In the superficial area, carbohydrates dominate in the range of about 5-8%, and in the central part of the seeds are mainly concentrated essential oils and pepper glycosides, even one hundred percent of which already causes burns and spicy taste. Chemistry in our Lives

If there is no contact with that glycoside, ie the upper part of the pepper will be carefully cured, then the bitter pepper may even be sweet.

Preparation of hips (leaflets) from flowers and leaves

The petals and leaves placed on the pages of the book can dry without losing their appearance and remind them of the summer. Chemistry in our Lives

The most suitable adhesive for decorative herbicides is gelatin, since the drying of other officers or other adhesives becomes brittle, causing the flowers and leaves to shatter.

The gelatin glue is made in the following way: fill the contents of a small standard nutritional gelatine pack in 40 to 50 ml of hot water and add to the dough knife to dry bleach and mix well until the homogeneous mass is obtained.

A piece of paper or cloth on which the trough is to be pulled on a flat or Draw Blatt board, and with stabilizers, and then rub the adhesive on the surface.

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After storing for 6-8 hours in the cool place, the glue is a little submerged and can only be glued to the leaves and flowers. The received image covers a few layers of oil or fine paper and covers another flat panel (suitable for holes) for ventilation.

The oil should be changed from time to time so as not to touch the flowers. To decorate the dishwasher you need to wrap it with a flammable lacquer. Chemistry in our Lives

Honey canning

Honey is known for its anti-gingival properties and can be substituted with sugar when cooking canned food. And what fruits and berries can be stored with honey and how much honey can you use?

First of all, it should be noted that the use of honey instead of sugar for the canning is not widely used, partly expensive, and partly due to the fact that many substances with honey, which contain biologically active and antibacterial properties of honey during heat treatment, are sensitive to heat.

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However, if there is a need to replace sugar with honey, it should be taken into consideration that when preparing compote (fruits) from fruit and berries, both sugar and honey are first of all not a preservative but a sweet taste, as the concentration is not big enough to prevent the emergence of bacteria.

Instead of 2-3% sugar containing the solution for dewatering, it is necessary to use a double solution of the honey solution.

Instead of sugar, when preparing ordinary jam, honey should be taken by 15-20% more because the content of sugar content in honey is not more than 80%. It is better to use honey for the preservation of less acid fruits. It is explained by the fact that the fertilization of such fruits is a risk of diarrhea because less acid prevents glucose and fructose in sugar, whereas honey is an equal amount of glucose and fructose.

Consequently, there is no surplus in the jam and the danger of sugar can be excluded and on the other hand benefits from the taste of jam.

Literature:

  1. VN Алексансий, “Занимательные опыты по химии”, М., “Просвещение“, 1980.
    2. G. Balueva, “Время срывать яблоки“, Чимия и жизнь, N 7, 1983.
    3. The author of ” Lygin, N. Paravyan, “Выводите пятна сами“, Химия и жизнь, N 12, 1985.