At quantitative temperature, the volume of the ideal gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas. Boyle’s law

It was proposed by the British chemist Boyle in 1662 based on the experimental results: “The quantitative gas in a closed container, at a constant temperature, the pressure and volume of the gas are inversely proportional.” Called Boyle’s law. This is the first “law” discovered in human history.

Introduction Of Boyle’s law

Boyle's law

Boyle’s law (sometimes called Mariotte’s Law or Poma’s Law, discovered by Boyle and Marriott without knowing each other, was discovered shortly after): At the quantitative temperature, the volume of the ideal gas It is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas.

It was proposed by the British chemist Boyle in 1662 based on the experimental results: “The quantitative gas in a closed container, at a constant temperature, the inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of the gas”. This is the first “law” discovered in human history.

Boyle’s law Formula

Boyle's law

V means the volume of gas, P means pressure, and C is a constant.

This formula can be further derived, and the product of the volume and pressure of the ideal gas becomes a constant, namely: PV = C (constant).

If the temperature is the same, the gas relationship in the two states A and B can be expressed as P A V A = P B V B

Habitually, this formula will be written as:

Boyle's law

Significant significance

The theory created by Boyle, Boyle’s law, is the first quantitative formula to describe gas motion, laying the foundation for quantitative and chemical analysis of gases. This law is the foundation of learning chemistry, and students must learn it at the beginning of their studies.

Boyles law

Boyle has the experimental talent and also confirms that gas is composed of atoms like solids. However, in gases, atoms are far apart and not connected to each other, so they can be squeezed more densely.

As early as 440 BC, Democritus proposed the existence of atoms, and people have been arguing about this issue for the next two thousand years. Through experiments, Boyle made the scientific community believe that atoms do exist.

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Discovery journey Of Boyle’s law

Introduction

Born in the Earl’s House, Boyle is a member of the British Science Association. In the 1662 meeting of the Scientific Society, Robert Hooke (Robert Hooke) presented a paper, the paper describes the French on “aeroelastic experiment”. In the 17th century, scientists became interested in air characteristics.

The French scientist built a brass cylinder with a piston in the middle and installed very tightly. Several people pressed the piston hard to compress the air in the cylinder.

Then they loosened the piston and the piston bounced back, but not all of them bounced back. No matter how often they do the experiment, the pistons can’t always bounce back.

Through this experiment, French scientists claim that there is no elasticity at all in the air. After compression, the air will remain slightly compressed.

Boyle claims that the experiments of French scientists cannot explain any problems. He pointed out that the reason why the Pistons could not all bounce back was that the pistons they used were too tight. Some people retorted that if the piston is slightly loose, it will leak around and affect the experiment.

Robert Boyle promised to make a perfect piston with moderate tension, which proved that the above experiment was wrong.

Two weeks later, Robert Boyle stood in front of the members with a “U” shaped glass tube. The “U” shaped glass tube is not uniform, one is thin and long, more than 3 feet tall, the other is short and thick, the short top seal, the long top opening.

Boyle poured the mercury into the glass tube, and the mercury covered the bottom of the “U” shaped glass tube, which rose slightly on both sides. In a closed short tube, mercury blocks a small amount of air.

Boyle explained that the piston is any device that compresses air, and mercury can also be seen as a “piston.” As expected by the French experiment, Boyle’s practice does not affect the experimental results due to friction.

Boyle recorded the weight of mercury and carved a line at the junction of mercury and air. He dropped mercury into the long glass tube and kept it full. At this time, the mercury rises to half height in the short glass tube. Under the squeeze of mercury, the volume of the blocked air becomes less than half of the original.

On the short glass tube, Boyle engraved a second line, indicating the new height of mercury inside and the compression volume that blocked the air.

Then, through the valve at the bottom of the “U” shaped glass tube, he drains the mercury until the weight of the glass piston and mercury is exactly equal to the weight at the beginning of the experiment.

The mercury column returned to the height at which it began, and the blocked air returned to its original position. The air is really elastic, the experiments of French scientists are wrong, and Boyle is correct.

Robert Boyle continued the experiment with a glass piston and found many notable things. When he applies double the pressure to the blocked air, the volume of the air is halved; when three times the pressure is applied, the volume becomes 1/3 of the original.

Boyles law Graph

When squeezed, the change in air volume is always proportional to the change in pressure. He created a simple mathematical equation to represent this proportional relationship, which we now call “Boyle’s Law.”

This law is extremely important in understanding the atmosphere and using the atmosphere to serve humanity.

Robert Boyle (January 25, 1627 – December 30, 1691), an Irish natural philosopher, has made outstanding contributions to both chemistry and physics. Although his chemistry research still carries alchemy color, his book “The Skeptical Chemist” is still regarded as a milestone in the history of chemistry.

Study

Boyle was born in Ireland, Waterford County of Les Moore castle, was the richest man in Britain “Great Earl of Cork” Richard Boyle’s seventh son. Childhood is weak but early, learn Latin and French.

At the age of eight, he entered the Eton College of his father’s friend as the provost. During Eton, he did not like to participate in physical exercise and often became ill.

Three years later he went abroad to study with a French tutor and spent two years in Geneva. In 1641, he traveled to Florence, Italy to study Galileo’s astronomical works and experiments.

In 1643, Richard Boyle died in the war, leaving him a Dorset manor and heritage. In 1644 he returned to Ireland and guarded the manor while starting his scientific research.

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Scientific research and discovery

In 1646, Boyle was invited to join the mass science community organized by Wilkins, the “Philosophy Society” (also known as the Intangible Academy). Members of the community often meet in the estate of Boyle.

In 1648, Cromwell appointed Wilkins to preside over the reform of Oxford University. Wilkins invited Boyle to work in Oxford. In 1654 Boyle traveled to Oxford to set up a laboratory on his ancestral territory and hired Robert Hook to start research on gas and combustion.

In 1657 he improved the air pump invented by Otto Glick with the help of Robert Hook. In 1659, “Bo Yi Headphones” and “Wind Engines” were made. He then used this device to study the properties of the gas and published his research on the device in 1660.

This paper was opposed by some people. In order to refute the objection, Boyle clarified that the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the volume under certain temperature conditions.

French physicist Marriot got the same result, but It was not published until 1667. So in English-speaking countries, this law is called Boyle’s law, while in continental Europe it is called the law of Marlow.

In 1661, Boyle published “The Skeptical Chemist”. In this work, Boyle criticizes the four elements that have always existed and believes that in scientific research, the substances that constitute matter should not be called elements.

It should be similar to Helmont’s point of view, thinking that it can’t change each other and can’t be reduced to something simpler. He said: “The element I am talking about means something primitive, simple, and not doped at all. Objects.

Elements cannot be caused by any other object, nor can they be caused by each other. Elements are the direct synthesis of the so-called complete mixture and the final decomposition of the complete mixture.” The different aggregates of the elements’ particles result in different properties.

Because Boyle has made important contributions to the development of chemistry in both experimental and theoretical aspects, his work laid the initial foundation for modern chemistry, so it is considered to be the founder of modern chemistry.

Boyles law Graph

In 1668 he left Oxford to live in his sister’s estate in London. In London, he established his own laboratory, mainly for chemistry experiments. He strives to introduce rigorous experimental methods into chemistry.

In 1673, Boyle and Hook studied the burning of matter and found that under vacuum, the substance could not be burned. Based on the results of the combustion experiment, Boyle wrote the paper “A New Experiment on the Relationship between Flame and Air”, which first revealed that air is a necessary condition for combustion.

But he still believes that combustion is the interaction between fire and matter. In addition, Boyle also discovered that certain plant pigments can appear in different colors under acidic and alkaline conditions, thus introducing the concept of an indicator. Boyle was elected president of the Royal Society in 1680, but he refused the position because of the vows.

Elderly life

After 1689, Boyle was not good health and continued to deteriorate. He withdrew from all social activities, ended his relationship with the Royal Society, and publicly apologized for not accepting visitors.

In this leisure, he intends to organize thoughts and articles and hopes to engage in some secret chemistry research that will be passed on to future generations.

On December 30, 1691, just a week after his sister died, Boyle died. Born in the cemetery of St. Martin’s Church, according to his will, he donated a speech he wrote about the discussion of God’s existence for later scholars to discuss.

Social evaluation

Robert Boyle (Robert Boyle, 1627 Nian 1 25 – 30 December 1691), the Irish natural philosophy at home. Although his chemistry research still carries alchemy color, his book “The Skeptical Chemist” is still regarded as a milestone in the history of chemistry.

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